“Minimum Bridge”


“Minimum Bridge” (undated)
by Paul R Carmack (1895-1977)
11 x 15 in., ink on board
Coppola Collection

Paul Carmack was a staff cartoonist for the Christian Science Monitor.

This cartoon is likely to not have been printed. The editorial remark on the reverse side says “killed.”

The message is strong, as keeping citizens from voting is equivalent to codifying an ethos of “all citizens are equal, but some are more equal than others.”

The Voting Rights Act of 1965, signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote as guaranteed under the 15th Amendment to the Constitution.

The Voting Rights Act is considered one of the most far-reaching pieces of civil rights legislation in history.

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