Publications

going beyond ethnoracial discrimination and social support in accounting for psychological adjustment: evidence for the importance of hope as a positive psychological construct in multiethnoracial adults

Edward C. Chang, Olivia D. Chang, Jerin Lee, Abigael G. Lucas, Mingqi Li, K. Malulani Castro, Savannah Pham, Grace Y. Cho, Yena S. Purmasir, Elizabeth A. Yu, Kaidi Wu, P. Priscilla Lui, David Rollock, Paul Kwon, Xinjie Chan, Jameson K. Hirsch, & Elizabeth L. Jeglic

The Journal of Positive Psychology.

journal-of-positive-psychology

In the present study, we examined the role of ethnoracial discrimination, social support (viz., family & friends), and hope (viz., agency & pathways) in accounting for negative psychological adjustment (viz., worry & depressive symptoms) and positive psychological adjustment (viz., vitality & life satisfaction) in a sample of 203 (164 females & 39 males) multiethnoracial adults. Results of conducting a series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that beyond ethnoracial discrimination and social support, the inclusion of hope was found to augment the prediction model of psychological adjustment. Within the hope set, agency was found to be uniquely associated with adjustment. Pathways was found to be uniquely associated with positive indices of psychological adjustment. The present findings are the first to highlight the significance of hope in multiethnoracial adults. Some implications of the present findings for understanding psychological adjustment in multiethnoracial adults are discussed.


depression, loneliness, and suicide risk in latinos: a test of a psychosocial interaction model

Edward C. Chang, Olivia D. Chang, Abigael G. Lucas, Mingqi Li, Collin B. Beavan, Rachel S. Eisner, Brianna M. McManamon, Natalia S. Rodriquez, Olivia M. Katamanin, Eliza C. Bourke, Amaia de la Fuente, Olga Cardeñoso, Kaidi Wu, Elizabeth A. Yu, Elizabeth L. Jeglic, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Social Work.

This volume is the first comprehensive and interdisciplinary text to holistically improve understanding of the health of South Asians residing in the United States by considering biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors of health. The vast literatures of diverse fields – psychology, medicine, public health, social work, and health policy – are integrated by leading scholars, scientists, and practitioners in these areas to explore the impact of South Asian cultural factors on health, health risk, and illness. Chapters incorporate available theoretical and empirical information on the status of chronic health conditions in South Asians in the United States, with consideration of future directions to improve understanding of the health of this group. Cultural and ethnic insights imperative for clinical/community/medical practitioners to provide effective and culturally-appropriate care and treatment from an interdisciplinary lens are provided.


Biopsychosocial approaches to understanding health in south asian americans

Marisa J. Perera & Edward C. Chang

Springer.

This volume is the first comprehensive and interdisciplinary text to holistically improve understanding of the health of South Asians residing in the United States by considering biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors of health. The vast literatures of diverse fields – psychology, medicine, public health, social work, and health policy – are integrated by leading scholars, scientists, and practitioners in these areas to explore the impact of South Asian cultural factors on health, health risk, and illness. Chapters incorporate available theoretical and empirical information on the status of chronic health conditions in South Asians in the United States, with consideration of future directions to improve understanding of the health of this group. Cultural and ethnic insights imperative for clinical/community/medical practitioners to provide effective and culturally-appropriate care and treatment from an interdisciplinary lens are provided.


Treating Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Ethnic and Racial Groups: Cognitive Behavioral Approaches

Edward C. Chang, Christina A. Downey, Jameson K. Hirsch, and Elizabeth A. Yu

American Psychological Association.

Depression, anxiety, and stress are responsible for an overwhelming number of mental health care visits, and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the most common empirically supported treatment for these conditions. Yet little is known about the effectiveness of CBT with African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, and Native Americans—ethnic and racial groups comprising nearly half of the U.S. population. In this volume, Chang, Downey, Hirsch, and Yu show therapists how to adapt cognitive behavioral treatments for use with racial and ethnic minority clients. Contributors demonstrate how a client’s particular sociocultural background contextualizes his or her experience and understanding of mental health issues. They examine the influence of sociocultural context on experiences of social anxiety among Asian Americans, the role of racial identity in the way stress and anxiety are experienced by African American clients, and much more.


Parent-child Closeness and parents’ meaning in life in personal meaning in life: Examining ethnic differences

Elizabeth A. Yu & Edward C. Chang

The Family Journal.

We examined for ethnic differences in how parent-child closeness and parents’ meaning in life predict personal meaning in life between 187 Asian American and 201 European American college students. Results indicated that parent-child closeness predicted a significant amount of variance in personal meaning in life for both groups. Furthermore, parents’ meaning in life added a significant amount of variance, above and beyond parent-child closeness, in predicting personal meaning in life for Asian Americans, but not for European Americans. Our findings indicate that although parents play some role in contributing to college-aged individuals’ meaning in life, there are still important ethnocultual nuances to consider. Findings from the present study provide a foundation for further research to continue examining the role of parents and familial relationships in meaning in life and other well-being outcomes. Further discussion of the study’s findings and implications are discussed.


Forgiveness and Suicidal Behavior in Primary Care: Mediating Role of Future Orientation

Jessica Kelliher Rabon, Jon R. Webb, Edward C. Chang, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health.

Forgiveness, a cognitive-emotional and behavioral reduction of negative responses to offenses, is directly related to less suicide risk, but may be indirectly related via its relation with future orientation, the ability to envision a positive future. In 100 rural primary care patients, we examined the association between self-forgiveness, other-forgiveness, and forgiveness by God and suicidal behavior, with future orientation as a mediator. Forgiveness was related to greater future orientation and, in turn, to less suicidal behavior. Addressing the past may promote adaptive views of the future and reduce suicide risk, results suggesting potential temporal and forgiveness-based points for suicide prevention.


Positive Expectancies for the Future as Potential Protective Factors of Suicide Risk in Adults: Does Optimism and Hope Predict Suicidal Behaviors in Primary Care Patients?

Abigael G. Lucas, Edward C. Chang, Jerin Lee, & Jameson K. Hirsch

International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.

The present study sought to examine optimism and hope as predictors of suicidal behaviors (viz., suicide ideation & suicide attempt) in a sample of 179 adult primary care patients. Furthermore, we aimed to determine if the combination of hope and optimism would account for additional variance in the prediction model for suicidal behaviors among this population. In this cross-sectional study, participants completed measures of hope (viz., agency and pathways), optimism, and suicidal behaviors, as well as a series of demographics questions. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test the aforementioned hypotheses. Results indicated that hope and optimism were both significant and unique predictors of suicidal behaviors among adult primary care patients. However, the Hope by Optimism interaction terms were not found to be significant. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.


Personal Growth Initiative and Life Satisfaction in Chinese and American Students: Some Evidence for Using Resources in the East and Being Planful in the West

Edward C. Chang, Hongfei Yang, Mingqi Li, Tianbi Duan, Yifan Dai, Jeff Z. Yang, Zihao Zhou, Xiaping Zheng, Lily E. Morris, Kaidi Wu, & Olivia D. Chang

Journal of Well-Being Assessment.

This study examined for cultural variations in personal growth initiative as a predictor of life satisfaction between 176 Chinese and 168 American college students. Comparative analyses of the personal growth initiative dimensions indicated lower readiness for change and planfulness, but higher using resources in Chinese, than in Americans. Results of regression analyses indicated that using resources was a unique predictor for Chinese, whereas planfulness was a unique predictor for Americans. Overall, these findings provide support for the global value of personal growth initiative as a positive psychological construct while also highlighting important cultural differences between Easterners and Westerners.


Understanding the Association Between Spirituality, Religiosity, and Feelings of Happiness and Sadness Among HIV-positive Indian Adults: Examining Stress-Related Growth as a Mediator

Edward C. Chang, Tina Yu, Jerin Lee, Shanmukh V. Kamble, Casey N.-H. Batterbee, Kayla R. Stam, Olivia D. Chang, Alexandria S.-M. Najarian, and Kaitlin M. Wright

Journal of Religion and Health.

This study examined the role of stress-related growth as a mediator of the associations between spirituality, religiosity, and feelings of happiness and sadness in a sample of 178 HIV-positive Indian adults. Results indicated that spirituality, but not religiosity, was associated with feelings of happiness and sadness. Subsequent mediation analyses indicated that stress-related growth fully mediated the relationships involving spirituality and feelings of happiness and sadness. Overall, our findings point to the importance of facilitating greater spiritual development among HIV-positive Indians, as well as promoting strategies that help them develop and apply stress-related growth coping methods in their lives.


Academic Motivation and Psychological Needs as Predictors of Suicidal Risk

Jerin Lee, Edward C. Chang, Abigael G. Lucas, and Jameson K. Hirsch

Journal of College Counseling.

The present study examined academic motivation and basic psychological needs as predictors of suicidal risk (viz., depressive symptoms & suicidal behaviors) in a sample of 348 college students. Results from regression analyses indicated that academic motivation was a significant predictor of suicidal risk. Importantly, the inclusion of basic psychological needs significantly augmented the prediction model. Some important implications for considering academic motivation and basic psychological needs in college counseling are discussed.

 


Presence of Trauma and Suicide Risk: Personal Control as a Moderator

Edward C. Chang, Abigael G. Lucas, Olivia D. Chang, Tianbi Duan, Zihao Zhou, Jeff Z. Yang, Lily E. Morris, Harrison D. Angoff, and Jameson K. Hirsch

Death Studies.

Given past findings that have linked trauma and lack of personal control to greater suicidal risk in adults, the present study examined how trauma presence and personal control are uniquely involved in predicting suicidal risk in a sample of 469 college students. Regression analyses indicated that both trauma presence and personal control were significant predictors of suicidal risk, as did their interaction. The present findings suggest a need to consider both trauma presence and low personal control in assessing for suicidal risk in college students.


Ethnic Identity and Loneliness in Predicting Suicide Risk in Latino College Students

Edward C. Chang, Lizbeth Díaz, Abigael G. Lucas, Jerin Lee, Nicholas J. Powell, Sally Kafelghazal, Sarah J. Chartier, Lily E. Morris, Tey’Ariana M. Marshall-Broaden, Jameson K. Hirsch, & Elizabeth L. Jeglic

Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences.

The present study was conducted to examine the role of ethnic identity and loneliness as predictors of suicide risk, namely, hopelessness and suicidal behaviors, in Latino college students. Results of conducting regression analyses indicated that ethnic identity was a significant predictor of suicide risk. When loneliness was added into the regression model, it was found to account for a significant amount of incremental variance in both of the suicide risk indices. Some implications for incorporating ethnic identity and loneliness in working with Latino college students are discussed.


Perceived stress and suicidal behaviors in college students: Conditional indirect effects of depressive symptoms and mental health stigma

Jameson K. Hirsch, Jessica Kelliher Rabon, Esther E. Reynolds, Alison L. Barton,  & Edward C. Chang

Stigma and Health.

Suicide is a significant public health concern, and the second leading cause of death for college students. Perceived stress, depression, and mental health stigma are established risk factors for suicidal behavior; however, their interrelationships are unknown. Data was collected from 913 collegiate housing residents (70.8% female; n = 646). Using data from self-report measures, depressive symptoms were examined as a mediator of the relation between stress and suicidal behavior, along with the moderating effect of mental health stigma. Depressive symptoms partially mediated the stress-suicide linkage, and mental health stigma was a significant moderator of the associations between stress and depression, depression and suicidal behavior, and stress and suicidal behavior. Stigmatized attitudes toward mental health treatment, including fear of social repercussion, may exacerbate the deleterious impact of stress on psychopathology and suicide risk. Addressing mental health stigma may buffer the transition from stress to suicidal outcomes.


 Relationship between loneliness and symptoms of anxiety and depression in African American men and women: Evidence for gender as a moderator

Edward C. Chang

Personality and Individual Differences.

We examined for gender differences in loneliness and negative affective conditions, namely, symptoms of anxiety and depression, in 168 African American college students. Gender differences were examined as a predictor of negative affective conditions and as a moderator of the relationship between loneliness and negative affective conditions. Although no significant differences were found in levels of loneliness and negative affective conditions between African American men and women, results of regression analyses indicated that gender differences significantly predicted anxious and depressive symptoms. Moreover, a significant Gender × Loneliness interaction effect was found in predicting both anxious and depressive symptoms. Specifically, higher levels of anxious and depressive symptoms were found among lonely African American women, compared to men. These findings suggest that the negative psychological effects of loneliness may be particularly more damaging for African American women than men. Understanding the unique challenges of African American women, compared to men, as a double minority is discussed.


The relationship between domestic partner violence and suicidal behaviors in an adult community sample: Hope agency and pathways as protective factors

Edward C. Chang, Elizabeth A. Yu, Emma R. Kahle, Yifeng Du, Olivia D. Chang, Zunaira Jilani, Tina Yu, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Violence Against Women.

violence against women cover

We examined an additive and interactive model involving domestic partner violence (DPV) and hope in accounting for suicidal behaviors in sample of 98 community adults. Results showed that DPV accounted for a significant amount of variance in suicidal behaviors. Hope further augmented the prediction model and accounted for suicidal behaviors beyond DPV. Finally, we found that DPV significantly interacted with both dimensions of hope to further account for additional variance in suicidal behaviors above and beyond the independent effects of DPV and hope. Implications for the role of hope in the relationship between DPV and suicidal behaviors are discussed.

 


A Preliminary Examination of Negative Life Events and Sexual Assault Victimization as Predictors of Psychological Functioning in Female College Students: Does One Matter More Than the Other?

Edward C. Chang, Jerin Lee, Lily E. Morris, Abigael G. Lucas, Olivia D. Chang, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

The present study examined negative life events (NLE) and sexual assault victimization as predictors of positive and negative psychological functioning in a sample of 151 female college students. Results obtained from conducting regression analyses indicated several notable patterns. NLE, compared to sexual assault victimization, was a stronger negative predictor of positive functioning based on indices related to subjective well-being (e.g., life satisfaction, positive affect). Alternatively, sexual assault victimization, compared to negative life events, was a stronger positive predictor of negative functioning based on indices related to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms (e.g., anxiety) and related conditions (e.g., alcohol use). Furthermore, both negative life events and sexual assault victimization were found to be positive predictors of negative functioning based on indices related to suicide risk (e.g., depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors). Overall, our findings indicate that both negative life events and sexual assault victimization represent important and distinct predictors of psychological functioning in female college students.


loss of Hope and suicide risk in Hungarian college students: How the presence of perceived family support makes a positive difference

Edward C. Chang, Olivia D. Chang,  Tamás Martos, & Viola Sallay

The Family Journal.

We examined hope and family support as predictors of suicide risk (viz., anxious symptoms, depressive symptoms, & suicide ideation) in a sample of 502 Hungarian college students. Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the inclusion of family support provided further incremental validity in predicting all three indices of suicide risk, beyond the variance accounted for by hope. Consistent with the notion that family support might moderate the beneficial effects of hope on suicide risk, evidence for a significant Hope × Family Support interaction effect in predicting all three indices of suicide risk was found. Additionally, a significant interaction effect in predicting suicide ideation remained, even after controlling for psychological symptoms. Beyond the role of hope in predicting suicide risk in Hungarian college students, the present findings show how family support both additively and interactively represents a positive psychological resource that should be considered in understanding suicide risk among students.


Does Optimism Weaken the Negative Effects of Being Lonely on Suicide Risk?

Edward C. Chang, Olivia D. Chang, Tamás Martos, Viola Sallay, Xiaoqing Li, Abigael G. Lucas, & Jerin Lee

Death Studies.

The present study investigated loneliness and optimism as predictors of suicide risk, specifically, depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation, in 457 Hungarian college students. Beyond the expected role of loneliness in suicide risk, being optimistic buffered the positive association between loneliness and suicide. Our findings implicate the importance of fostering optimism for potentially lowering suicide risk among lonely college students.

 


Non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior in a diverse sample: The moderating role of social problem solving ability

Kristin L. Walker, Jameson K. Hirsch, Edward C. Chang, & Elizabeth L. Jeglic

International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.

Non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior are prevalent in young adults, and often constitute a continuum of self-destructiveness.  Not all those who self-injure, however, engage in suicidal behaviors with intent to die, perhaps due to protective intrapersonal characteristics.  Aims: We examined the role of one such potential buffer, social problem solving ability, as a moderator of the association between non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal thoughts and attempts, hypothesizing that individuals with greater social problem solving ability would report fewer suicidal behaviors in relation to self-harm.  Methods: An ethnically diverse sample was recruited from a large, Northeastern urban university, and completed self-report questionnaires assessing non-suicidal self-injury, suicidal behaviors, and social problem solving ability.  Multivariate hierarchical regression analyses were conducted. Results: For the entire sample, individuals with higher social problem solving abilities reported fewer suicidal behaviors associated with non-suicidal self-injury. In ethnically stratified analyses, social problem solving significantly moderated the relationship between self-injury and suicidal behaviors for Whites and Hispanics only. Conclusions: Promotion of problem-solving skills may weaken the linkage between self-injury and potential for future suicidal behaviors for some individuals; however, culture-specific differences in this effect may exist.


Applying the broaden-and-build model of positive emotions to social problem solving: Does feeling good (vs. feeling bad) influence problem orientation, problem-solving skills, or both?

Edward C. Chang

Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology.

The present study sought to determine if positive mood plays a role in broadening and building key components of social problem solving, namely, problem orientation and problem-solving skills, respectively, in a sample of 205 college students. Results from regression analyses indicated that positive affect at baseline predicted both positive and negative problem orientation 2 months later, even after controlling for concurrent affect. In contrast, positive affect at baseline did not predict problem-solving skills. Interestingly, results from these analyses also indicated that negative affect at baseline predicted one dimension of problem orientation, namely, positive problem orientation, and two dimensions of problem-solving skills, namely, rational problem solving and impulsive/carelessness style. On the one hand, the present findings offer support for the notion that positive affect, relative to negative affect, is strongly involved in problem orientation. On the other hand, however, they support the notion that negative affect, compared to positive affect, is strongly involved in problem-solving skills. Some implications of the present findings for cultivating effective problem-solving ability are discussed.


Perfectionism and loneliness as predictors of depressive and anxious symptoms in African American adults: Further evidence for a top-down additive model

Edward C. Chang

Cognitive Therapy and Research.

In the present study, I used a top-down approach to examine perfectionism and loneliness as additive predictors of depressive and anxious symptoms in a sample of 168 African American college students. Consistent with expectations, I found perfectionism and loneliness to be associated with both depressive and anxious symptoms. In addition, results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated that certain dimensions of perfectionism, especially doubts about actions, accounted for significant variance in both depressive and anxious symptoms. Moreover, the inclusion of loneliness as a predictor was found to predict additional unique variance in both depressive and anxious symptoms, beyond what was accounted for by perfectionism. Implications of the present findings for future research on negative affective conditions in African American adults are discussed.


Loneliness and suicidal risk in young adults: Does believing in a changeable future help minimize suicidal risk among the lonely?

Edward C. Chang, Liangqiu Wan, Pengzi Li, Yuncheng Guo, Jiaying He, Yu Gu, Yingjie Wang, Xiaoqing Li, Zhan Zhang, Yingrui Sun, Casey N.-H. Batterbee, Olivia D. Chang, Abigael G. Lucas, & Jameson K. Hirsch

The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied.

This study examined loneliness and future orientation as predictors of suicidal risk, namely, depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, in a sample of 228 college students (54 males & 174 females). Results of regression analyses indicated that loneliness was a significant predictor of both indices of suicidal risk. The inclusion of future orientation was found to significantly augment the prediction model of both depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, even after accounting for loneliness. Noteworthy, beyond loneliness and future orientation, the Loneliness × Future Orientation interaction term was found to further augment both prediction models of suicidal risk. Consistent with the notion that future orientation is an important buffer of suicidal risk, among lonely students, those with high future orientation, compared to low future orientation, were found to report significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. Some implications of the present findings for studying both risk and protective factors associated with suicidal risk in young adults are discussed.


Athletic competence as a central facet of sport orientation among collegiate athletes

Edward C. Chang, Alexandria S.-M. Najarian, Olivia D. Chang, Gianna M. Hill, & Jerin Lee

Journal of Sport Behavior.


The present study examined facets of athletic identity (i.e., appearance, importance, competence, and encouragement) as predictors of sport orientation dimensions in a sample of 183 collegiate athletes (114 males & 69 females). Results from conducting correlational analyses indicated that all facets of athletic identity were positively associated with all three dimensions of sport orientation, namely competitiveness, win orientation, and goal orientation. However, results from conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated that, independent of demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, & race/ethnicity), competence was the only unique facet of athletic identity to predict each of the three sport orientation dimensions. The present findings point to the importance of competence as a central facet underlying sport-based motivation among collegiate athletes.


Hope and hopelessness as predictors of suicide ideation in Hungarian college students

Edward C. Chang

Death Studies.
This study investigated whether hopelessness and dispositional hope predict suicide ideation in 395 Hungarian college students. Both hopelessness and hope uniquely predicted suicide ideation, a pattern that remained unchanged even after controlling for psychological symptoms. Moreover, a significant hopelessness x hope interaction predicted suicide ideation. Present findings highlight how hope buffers the association between hopelessness and suicide risk in college students.


Future orientation and suicide risk in Hungarian college students: Burdensomeness and belongingness as mediators

Edward C. Chang, Olivia D. Chang, Tamás Martos, & Viola Sallay

Death Studies.
We tested a model consistent with the notion that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness mediate the association between future orientation and suicide risk (viz., depressive symptoms & suicide ideation) in college students. The sample was comprised of 195 Hungarian college students. Results indicated that the negative associations found between future orientation and suicide risk outcomes were accounted for by both perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. The present findings highlight the importance of studying positive future cognitions in suicide risk, and provide support for perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness as potential proximal mechanisms associated with heightened suicide risk in adults.


Examining optimism and hope as protective factors of suicide risk in Hungarian college students: Is risk highest for those lacking positive psychological protection?

Edward C. Chang, Tamás Martos, Viola Sallay, Olivia D. Chang, Kaitlin M. Wright, Alexandria S.-M. Najarian, & Jerin Lee

Cognitive Therapy and Research.
A specific model involving optimism and hope as predictors of suicide risk, namely, depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, was tested in a sample of 508 (242 male & 266 female) Hungarian college students. Beyond the distinct influence of the two predictors on both depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, optimism and hope were also hypothesized to interact together to predict both outcomes. Results of regression analyses indicated that optimism and hope were significant and unique predictors of lower depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. Noteworthy, beyond optimism and hope, the Optimism × Hope interaction term was found to significantly augment the prediction of both depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. Specifically, optimists with high hope showed the highest amount of protection from depressive symptoms, but not suicide ideation. In contrast, pessimists with low hope consistently showed the least amount of protection from both depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. Some implications of the present findings for understanding protective factors of suicide risk are discussed.


Examining sexual assault victimization and loneliness as risk factors associated with non-lethal self-harm behaviors in female college students: Is it important to control for concomitant suicidal behaviors (and vice versa)?

Edward C. Chang, Jerin Lee, Kaitlin M. Wright, Alexandria S.-M. Najarian, Tina Yu, Olivia D. Chang, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Journal of Interpersonal Violence.
The present study examined sexual assault victimization and loneliness as predictors of self-harm behaviors in a sample of 224 female college students. Results from conducting regression analysis indicated that both sexual assault victimization and loneliness were unique and significant predictors of self-harm behaviors. This pattern remained even after controlling for concomitant suicidal behaviors. Interestingly, in a post-hoc analysis predicting suicidal behaviors, it was found that loneliness, but not sexual assault victimization, was the only unique and significant predictor after controlling for self-harm behaviors. Some implications of the present findings for understanding self-harm behaviors in female college students and the importance of controlling for suicidal behaviors in studies of self-harm behaviors (and vice versa) are discussed.


Family support as a moderator of the relationship between loneliness and suicide risk in college students: Having a supportive family matters!

Edward C. Chang, Olivia D. Chang,  Tamás Martos, Viola Sallay, Jerin Lee, Kayla R. Stam, Casey N.-H Batterbee, & Tina Yu

The Family Journal.
In this study, we examined loneliness and family support as predictors of suicide risk (viz., depressive symptoms & suicide ideation) in college students. The sample was comprised of 456 Hungarian college students. Results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for sex and age, indicated that the inclusion of family support provided further incremental validity in predicting both depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, beyond the variance accounted for by loneliness. Moreover, consistent with the notion that family support might buffer the negative effects of loneliness on suicide risk, evidence for a significant Loneliness × Family Support interaction effect in predicting both indices of suicide risk was found. Thus, beyond the role of loneliness in predicting suicide risk in college students, the present findings are the first to show how family support both additively and interactively represents a positive psychological resource that should be considered in understanding suicide risk among students.


Hope as a mediator of the link between intimate partner violence and suicidal risk in Turkish women: Further evidence for the role of hope agency

Mine Muyan & Edward C. Chang

Journal of Interpersonal Violence.
The present study examined hope as a potential mediator of the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and suicidal risk, namely, depression and suicide ideation, in a sample of 149 Turkish female college students. Results from conducting bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated that hope agency, but not hope pathways, mediated the link between IPV and suicidal risk in Turkish women. Importantly, the associations of IPV with both depression and suicide ideation became non-significant once hope was included in the prediction model. Some implications of the present findings for hope theory and practice in the context of IPV victimization among Turkish women are discussed.


Happiness among HIV-positive Indian adults: Examining stress-related growth and coping as predictors of positive psychological adjustment.

Edward C. Chang, Tina Yu, Zunaira Jilani, Olivia D. Chang, Yifeng Du, Jameson K. Hirsch, & Shanmukh V. Kamble 

Asian Journal of Psychiatry.
This study examined stress-related growth and emotion-focused coping as predictors of happiness and sadness in a sample of 208 HIV-positive Indian adults. For both outcomes, stress-related growth was found to be an important predictor of adjustment. Furthermore, the inclusion of emotion-focused coping behaviors were found to significantly augment the prediction models, with denial, venting, self-distraction emerging as significant unique predictors of happiness and sadness beyond stress-related growth.


Validity of the Frequency of Suicidal Ideation Inventory in Hungarian adults

Edward C. Chang, Olivia D. Chang, Tamás Martos, Viola Sallay, Alexandra S.-M. Najarian, & Jerin Lee

Death Studies.
The present research examined the validity of the Hungarian Frequency of Suicidal Ideation Inventory (FSII-H). In Study 1, among 457 Hungarian college students, confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor model. In Study 2, among 241 Hungarian college students, FSII-H correlated positively with measures of suicide risk factors, and negatively with suicide protective factors. The present findings are the first to provide promising evidence for the validity of a brief measure of suicide ideation frequency in a Hungarian population.


Evaluative Concerns and Personal Standards Perfectionism as Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Asian and European American Females College Students 

Edward C. Chang, Tina Yu, Olivia D. Chang, & Zunaira Jilani

Journal of American College Health.

Objectives: The present study examined perfectionism (viz., evaluative concerns & personal standards) and ethnicity as predictors of body dissatisfaction in female college students. Participants: Participants were 298 female college students sampled by December of 2013. Methods: A self-report survey with measures of body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, and demographics was conducted. Results: Regression analyses indicated that evaluative concerns perfectionism (ECP) was a significant predictor of body dissatisfaction. The inclusion of ethnicity was found to further augment the prediction model. Moreover, we found support for an ECP × Ethnicity interaction effect in predicting body dissatisfaction. Specifically, among high-ECP female students, European Americans, compared to Asian Americans, reported the highest level of body dissatisfaction. Conclusion: High ECP represents a potential marker of body dissatisfaction in female college students. However, the presence of high ECP is a more critical predictor of body dissatisfaction in European American female students, compared to Asian American female students.


Big 5 personality and subjective well-being in Asian Americans: Testing optimism and pessimism as mediators

Priscilla P. Lui, David Rollock, Edward C. Chang, Frederick T. L. Leong, & Byron L. Zamboanga

Asian American Journal of Psychology

Understanding Asian Americans’ lives and challenges would be enhanced by examining group-specific contributors to subjective well-being (SWB). The components and predictors of SWB, as well as other dimensions of positive psychology, are understudied in mainstream psychological and Asian American literatures. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by (1) exploring multiple domains of SWB—hedonic, eudaimonic, social, physical, and financial well-being; (2) examining joint and distinct influences of Big 5 personality traits and outcome expectancies; and, (3) considering experiences that foster life flourishing among Asian Americans. Asian American college freshmen (N = 456; 55.56% women; Mage = 17.95 years) completed self-report measures assessing their Big 5 personality tendencies, optimism and pessimism, and SWB. Confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) findings supported the notion that SWB could be conceptualized as comprised of five distinct but related domains. CFAs also indicated that optimism and pessimism were partially independent constructs. Structural equation models indicated that extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness were stronger predictors for domains of SWB than optimism or pessimism. Optimism partially mediated the relationships between extraversion and eudaimonic well-being as well as between neuroticism and physical well-being. Pessimism did not mediate the personality—SWB linkage. Results highlight the predictive impact of personality traits on SWB. Findings also illuminate indirect pathways of these influences through optimistic expectancies for personality and SWB domains, but unexpectedly not through pessimistic expectancies. Cultural considerations underlying these patterns, limitations, and future directions are discussed.


Understanding the association between negative life events and suicidal risk in college students: Examining self-compassion as a potential mediator. 

Edward C. Chang, Tina Yu, Alexandria S.-M. Najarian, Kaitlin M. Wright, Wenting Chen, Olivia D. Chang, Yifeng Du, & Jameson K. Hirsch 

Journal of Clinical Psychology

Objective: We tested a hypothesized model consistent with the notion that self-compassion mediates the association between negative life events and suicidal risk (viz., depressive symptoms & suicidal behaviors) in college students. Method: The sample was comprised of 331 college students. Self-compassion facets (viz., self-kindness, self-judgment, common humanity, isolation, mindfulness, & over-identification) were used in testing for multiple mediation, controlling for sex. Results: Common humanity, mindfulness, and over-identification were found to mediate the association between negative life events and depressive symptoms. However, common humanity was found to be the only mediator of the association between negative life events and suicidal behaviors. Conclusions: These findings suggest that there are specific facets of self-compassion that account for the association between negative life events and suicidal risk in college students and that (loss of) common humanity plays a central role in this process.


Personal and family growth initiative as predictors of study engagement in Chinese and American college students: Is there any evidence for group differences?

Edward C. Chang & Hongfei Yang 

Personality and Individual Differences

The present study examined the relationship between personal growth initiative (PGI), family growth initiative (FGI), and study engagement in a sample of 379 Chinese and 351 American college students. Consistent with expectations, PGI was found to predict different facets of study engagement in both cultural groups. When FGI was included, a consistent difference between Chinese and American students emerged. Specifically, FGI was found to account for additional amounts of variance in study engagement in Chinese students, but not in American students. Overall, our findings support the cross-cultural relevance of PGI in predicting studying engagement across college students from the East and West, and also point to the value of considering additional sources of growth for students that come from cultures that traditionally place a strong focus on the group.


PERCEIVED INTERPERSONAL SOURCES OF LIFE SATISFACTION IN CHINESE AND AMERICAN STUDENTS: CULTURAL OR GENDER DIFFERENCES?

Edward C. Chang, Hongfei Yang, and Tina Yu

The Journal of Positive Psychology

Screen Shot 2016-06-02 at 11.57.26 PMThis study evaluated cultural and gender differences in perceived interpersonal sources of life satisfaction between 341 Chinese and 222 American college students. Comparative analyses indicated overall lower life satisfaction in Chinese, than in Americans. However, Chinese, compared to Americans, reported greater life satisfaction derived from perceived sources involving the self, parents, teachers, and peers. Results of regression analyses indicated that, for both Chinese and Americans, the self and parents were unique sources associated with life satisfaction. However, for Americans, close friends also emerged as an additional unique source. When gender differences were examined, additional nuances were found within each cultural group. Thus, some evidence for both cultural and gender differences in perceived interpersonal sources of life satisfaction across Chinese and Americans was found. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.


examining Gender Differences in the Roles of Meaning in Life and Interpersonal Expectancies in Depressive Symptoms

Elizabeth A. Yu, Edward C. Chang, Tina Yu, Sarah C. Bennett, and Erin E. Fowler

Gender Issues

In the present study, we examined for gender differences in meaning in life (viz., presence of & searching for) and interpersonal expectancies (viz., positive & negative) as additive and interactive predictors of depressive symptoms in a sample of 117 male and 132 female college students. We found that meaning in life accounted for a significant amount of variance in depressive symptoms for both men and women, and while presence of meaning in life was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms for both groups, it was a stronger predictor among women compared to men. Furthermore, we found that interpersonal expectancies accounted for additional variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond meaning in life for both groups, and interestingly, only positive interpersonal expectancy emerged as a significant predictor of depressive symptoms. Finally, the interactions involving meaning in life and interpersonal expectancies accounted for a significant amount of additional variance above and beyond the main effects for both men and women. However, a greater number of significant interactions emerged for women than for men. Implications of the present findings for understanding gender differences in meaning in life and interpersonal expectancies as predictors of depressive symptoms are discussed.


Neuroticism and suicidal behavior: Conditional indirect effects of social problem solving and hopelessness

 Kristin L. Walker, Edward C. Chang, and Jameson K. Hirsch.

International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction

Purpose: Individuals with problem solving deficits, and higher levels of neuroticism and hopelessness, are at increased risk for suicide, yet little is known about the interrelationships between these vulnerability characteristics. Methods: In a sample of 223 low-income, primary care patients, we examined the potential mediating role of hopelessness on the relation between neuroticism and suicidal behavior, and the potential moderating role of social problem solving ability. Participants completed self-report questionnaires: Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised, Beck Hopelessness Scale, and NEO Five Factor Inventory. Models were tested using bootstrapped moderated mediation techniques. Results: There was a significant indirect effect of neuroticism on suicidal behavior through hopelessness, and this indirect effect was moderated by social problem solving ability. Conclusion: Patients with greater neuroticism also manifest greater levels of hopelessness and, in turn, more suicidal behavior, and these relations are strengthened at lower levels of social problem solving.  Interventions that increase social problem solving ability and reduce hopelessness may reduce suicide risk.


Ethnic variables and negative life events as predictors of depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in Latino college students: On the centrality of receptivo a los démas

 Edward C. Chang, Elizabeth A. Yu, Tina Yu, Emma R. Kahle, Viviana Hernandez, Jean M. Kim, Elizabeth L. Jeglic, and Jameson K. Hirsch.

Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences

In the present study, we examined ethnic variables (viz., multigroup ethnic identity & other-group orientation; Phinney, 1992) along with negative life events as statistical correlates and predictors of depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in a sample of 156 (38 male & 118 female) Latino college students. Consistent with expectations, we found ethnic variables to be associated with lower depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors. Additionally, we found negative life events to be associated with greater depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors. Results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the set of ethnic variables, accounted for significant variance in both depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors. Other group orientation emerged as the most robust individual statistical predictor of the set. The inclusion of negative life events was found to account for significant additional variance in both outcomes, beyond what was accounted for by ethnic variables. Interestingly, beyond main effects, results indicated a significant Other Group Orientation × Negative Life Events interaction effect to account for additional variance in depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors. Some implications of the present findings are discussed, including the potential value for Latinos to broaden their attitudes and interactions with other ethnic groups.


Hope and trauma: examining a diathesis-stress model in predicting depressive and anxious symptoms in college students

 Edward C. Chang, Tina Yu, and Olivia D. Chang

Personality and Individual Differences.

The present study sought to examine a diathesis-stress model involving hope and trauma history as predictors of depressive and anxious symptoms in a sample of 575 college students. Results from regression analyses indicated that hope and trauma were important and unique predictors of both depressive and anxious symptoms in students. Moreover, we found support for a significant Hope × Trauma interaction in predicting both depressive and anxious symptoms. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.

 


Positive Psychology in Racial and Ethnic Groups: Theory, Research, and Practice

 Edward C. Chang, Christina A. Downey, Jameson K. Hirsch, and Natalie J. Lin

American Psychological Association.

Positive psychology has become a vibrant, well-regarded field of study, and a powerful tool for clinicians. But, for many years, the research in areas relevant to positive psychology, such as happiness, subjective well-being, and emotional intelligence, has been based on findings from largely White samples and has rarely taken the concerns of the ethnic community into consideration.

Now, for the first time, leaders in the field have come together to provide a comprehensive reference that focuses specifically on how a culturally-informed approach to positive psychology can help capitalize on the strengths of racial minority groups and have a greater potential to positively impact their psychological well-being. Taking into account the rich and diverse cultural histories of ethnic groups, the information presented in this volume can help clinicians use positive psychology to inspire minorities to be effective agents in their environments and communities.

Acting as a bridge between positive psychology theory and research — largely based on an essentialist view of human behavior — and the realities of practice and assessment in diverse groups, Positive Psychology in Racial and Ethnic Groupsfocuses on four main ethnic groups: Asian Americans, Latin Americans, African Americans, and American Indians.

Broken into five major sections — an introduction to the field, theory and research, assessment, clinical interventions, and a discussion of what the future may hold — this is a unique volume in the field, and a call to action for researchers and clinicians everywhere.


Development of the Frequency of Suicidal Ideation Inventory: Evidence for the validity and reliability of a brief measure of suicidal ideation frequency in a college student population

 Edward C. Chang & Olivia D. Chang

Cognitive Therapy and Research

The present research focused on the development of a brief measure of suicidal ideation (SI) frequency, namely, the Frequency of Suicidal Ideation Inventory (FSII). Study 1 examined the latent structure of the FSII in a sample of 399 US college students. Results of principle axis factoring indicated a one-factor solution accounting for 86.96% of the variance. Study 2 provided support for the internal reliability of the FSII across four different international samples (viz., US, Turkish, Hungarian, & Chinese). Within the US sample, the FSII was found to possess good six-week test-retest reliability. Moreover, an examination of the associations between the FSII and important measures associated with suicidal risk (e.g., depressive symptoms) and resilience (e.g., flourishing) provided support for the construct validity of our new measure in an independent sample of 143 US college students. Overall, the present findings provide promising evidence for the validity and reliability of the FSII as a brief measure of SI frequency in adults.


Asian American Values as Predictors of Meaning in Life in Asian and European American College Students: Evidence for Cultural Differences?

Elizabeth A. Yu, Edward C. Chang, & Jackie H. J. Kim

Asian American Journal of Psychology

In the present study, we examined for ethnocultural differences in how a variety of Asian American values predict meaning in life in a sample of 107 Asian American and 131 European American college students. Results indicated that Asian American values as a whole predicted a significant amount of variance for meaning in life, only for Asian American college students. As individual predictors, emotional self-control inversely predicted meaning in life for both Asian American and European American college students, the value of humility positively predicted meaning in life for Asian Americans, and the value of respect for family positively predicted meaning in life for European Americans. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.


 Is the PGIS-II redundant with the Hope Scale?: Evidence for the utility of the PGIS-II in predicting psychological adjustment in adults.

Hongfei Yang & Edward C. Chang

Personality and Individual Differences

Shorey et al. (2007) found that the Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS; Robitschek, 1998) did not add to the prediction of psychological adjustment (e.g., optimism, psychological distress) when hope was controlled for. Recently, Robitschek et al. (2012) developed the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (PGIS-II) which is predicated on four distinct dimensions, namely readiness for change, planfulness, using resources, and intentional behaviors. To determine if the PGIS-II accounts for additional variance in psychological adjustment above hope, we conducted the present study to address this concern in a sample of 227 college students. Results from our analysis indicated that the PGIS-II explained for, beyond hope, an additional 3-5% of variance in life satisfaction, optimism, depression, and anxiety. Planfulness was found to be the only significant predictor of psychological adjustment in the PGIS-II set. The findings suggest that the personal growth initiative, especially planfulness, is a positive construct distinct from hope.


Depressive symptoms in South Asian, East Asian, and European Americans: Evidence for ethnic differences in coping with academic and interpersonal stress?

Marisa Perera & Edward C. Chang

Asian American Journal of Psychology

The present study sought to understand the role of ethnicity in the relationship between each of three distinct coping strategies (problem focused, active emotional, and avoidant emotional) and depressive symptoms in a sample of 81 South Asian Americans, 123 East Asian Americans and 117 European Americans. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that use of avoidant emotional coping strategies is a consistent predictor of depressive symptoms when coping with either an academic or interpersonal stressful event. Additional analyses indicated a significant interaction effect between ethnicity and avoidant emotional coping for South Asian Americans and European Americans, in accounting for depressive symptoms when the stressful event was interpersonal, but not academic, in nature. Overall, the present findings support some evidence of ethnic differences in the relations between coping strategies and depressive symptoms for Asian American subgroups and European Americans.


Predicting eating disturbances in Turkish adult females: Examining the role of intimate partner violence and perfectionism

Mine Muyan, Edward C. Chang, Zunaira Jilani, & Tina Yu

Eating Behaviors

In the present study, we sought to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence (IPV), perfectionism, and eating disturbances, namely, excessive dieting and bulimia, in a sample of 149 Turkish female college students. Results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated that IPV accounted for significant variance in both excessive dieting and bulimic symptoms. Moreover, the inclusion of perfectionism was found to predict additional unique variance in eating disturbances, beyond what was accounted for by IPV. Specifically, we found parental expectations to be a significant predictor of dieting, and personal standards, doubts about actions, and parental criticism to be significant predictors of bulimia. Some implications of the present findings for understanding eating disturbances in Turkish women are discussed.


Perfectionism as a predictor of suicidal risk in turkish college students: Does loneliness contribute to further risk?

Mine Muyan & Edward C. Chang

Cognitive Therapy and Research

In the present study, we examined perfectionism and loneliness as predictors of suicidal risk (viz., depressive symptoms & suicide ideation) in a sample of 288 (170 females & 118 males) Turkish college students. Results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated that certain dimensions of perfectionism, namely, parental criticism and doubts about actions, accounted for significant variance in both depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. The inclusion of loneliness as a predictor was found to predict additional unique variance in both suicidal risk measures, beyond what was accounted for by perfectionism. Results of predicting suicide ideation, controlling for depressive symptoms, indicated that parental criticism was the only significant perfectionism dimension to emerge. However, loneliness continued to account for a significant amount of additional unique variance. Some implications of the present findings for understanding suicidal risk in Turkish students are discussed.


Loneliness, positive life events, and psychological maladjustment: When good things happen, even lonely people feel better!

Edward C. Chang, Mine Muyan, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Personality and Individual Differences

The present study investigated loneliness and positive life events as predictors of psychological maladjustment (viz., depression, hopelessness, & suicidal behaviors) in a sample of 327 adults. Beyond the expected role of loneliness in psychological maladjustment, positive life events was found to further augment the prediction of depression, hopelessness, and suicidal behaviors. In addition, the presence of positive life events was found to buffer the positive association between loneliness and maladjustment. Specifically, the positive association between loneliness and psychological maladjustment was found to be weaker for those who experienced a high number of positive life events, as opposed to those who experienced a low number of positive life events. Some implications for helping adults perceive or appreciate the presence of positive events in their lives are discussed.


Relation between sexual assault and negative affective conditions in female college students: Does loss of hope account for the association?

Edward C. Chang, Zunaira Jilani,  Tina Yu, Jiachen Lin, Mine Muyan, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Journal of Interpersonal Violence

The present study examined dispositional hope as a potential mediator of the association between sexual assault and negative affective conditions, namely, depressive and anxious symptoms in a sample of 223 female college students. Results from conducting bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated that hope agency, but not hope pathways, mediated the link between sexual assault victimization and negative affective conditions in females. Importantly, the associations of sexual assault with both depressive and anxious symptoms remained highly significant independent of hope. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.


Relations between multidimensional spirituality and depressive symptoms in college students: Examining hope agency and pathways as potential mediators

Edward C. Chang, Zunaira Jilani, Erin Fowler, Tina Yu, ShaoWei Chia, Elizabeth Yu, Hannah McCabe, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Journal of Positive Psychology

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In this study, we examined goal-focused hope as a potential mediator between the association of multidimensional spirituality and depressive symptoms in a sample of 319 college students. Results of conducting a series of multiple mediation tests indicated that hope agency, but not hope pathways, fully and significantly accounted for the associations of ritualistic, theistic, and existential spirituality with depressive symptoms. Overall, our findings offer support for the contention that hope agency plays an important role in accounting for the association between spirituality and psychological adjustment in college students. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.


Sexual assault and depressive symptoms in college students: Do psychological needs account for the relationship?

Edward C. Chang, Jiachen Lin, Erin Fowler, Elizabeth Yu, Tina Yu, Zunaira Jilani, Emma Kahle, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Social Work

In this study, authors examined basic psychological needs (namely, competence, autonomy, and relatedness) as potential mediators of the association between sexual assault and depressive symptoms in a sample of 342 college students. Results from conducting a multiple mediation test provided support for partial mediation involving the indirect effects of competence and autonomy. In contrast, no support for mediation was found involving relatedness. It is notable that sexual assault remained a significant predictor of depressive symptoms in students. Therefore, findings indicate how sexual assault may both directly and indirectly (through psychological needs) lead to greater depressive symptoms in students. Authors concluded the article with a discussion of the implications of their findings for expanding the study of basic psychological needs in college students and the need for greater efforts to prevent and treat sexual assault on campus.


Loneliness and negative affective conditions in adults: Is there any room for hope in predicting anxiety and depressive symptoms?

Mine Muyan, Edward C. Chang, Zunaira Jilani, Tina Yu, Mine Muyan, & Jameson K. Hirsch

The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied

This study examined the role of hope in understanding the link between loneliness and negative affective conditions (viz., anxiety and depressive symptoms) in a sample of 318 adults. As expected, loneliness was found to be a significant predictor of both anxiety and depressive symptoms. Noteworthy, hope was found to significantly augment the prediction of depressive symptoms, even after accounting for loneliness. Furthermore, we found evidence for a significant Loneliness × Hope interaction effect in predicting anxiety. A plot of the interaction confirmed that the association between loneliness and anxiety was weaker among high, compared to low, hope adults. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.


The Pursuit of Perfection in Spiritual Engagements: The Centrality of Parental Expectations as a Positive and Unique Predictor.

Edward C. Chang, Tina Yu, Zunaira Jilani, Mine Muyan, Jiachen Lin, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Personality and Individual Differences

Personality

In the present study, we examined the relations between perfectionism and spirituality in a sample of college students. Results of correlational analyses were generally consistent with the notion that adaptive perfectionism dimensions (e.g., personal standards & organization) were positively associated with spirituality, whereas maladaptive perfectionism dimensions (e.g., concern over mistakes, parental criticism) were negatively associated with spirituality. Furthermore, results of conducting regression analyses provided support for perfectionism dimensions as unique predictors of different dimensions of spirituality. Interestingly, we found parental expectations to be a positive and unique predictor for all three dimensions of spirituality. Some implications on the importance of the present findings for future research on perfectionism and spirituality in adults are discussed.


Fundamental Dimensions of Personality Underlying Spirituality: Further Evidence for the Construct Validity of the RiTE Measure of Spirituality.

Edward C. Chang, Zunaira Jilani, Tina Yu, Erin E. Fowler, Jiachen Lin, Jon R. Webb, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Personality and Individual Differences

Personality

This study examined the construct validity of the RiTE as a multidimensional measure of spirituality in relation to the five-factor model of personality in a sample of 325 college students. Results of correlational and regression analyses provided support for the notion that the dimensions of ritualistic, theistic, and existential spirituality tapped by the RiTE are empirically distinguishable. Overall, our findings provide further evidence for the construct validity of the RiTE and for the potential value of measuring spirituality as a multidimensional phenomenon in the study of religious processes.


Social Problem Solving Under Assault: Understanding the Impact of Sexual Assault on the Relation Between Social Problem Solving and Suicidal Risk in Female College Students.

Edward C. Chang & Jameson K. Hirsch

Cognitive Therapy and Research

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The present study sought to examine how social problem solving and sexual assault are involved in suicidal risk in a sample of 221 female college students. Specifically, we were interested to examine whether sexual assault may play an additive as well as interactive role in the prediction of suicidal risk (viz., hopelessness & suicidal behaviors) above and beyond social problem solving. Results from regression analyses indicated that deficits in social problem solving, especially low positive problem orientation, and sexual assault were important and unique predictors of suicidal risk in female students. Moreover, we found support for a Social Problem Solving × Sexual Assault interaction in predicting hopelessness. Significant interactions emerged specifically for negative problem orientation and impulsivity/carelessness style. Some important implications of the present findings are discussed.


Hope Under Assault: Understanding the Impact of Sexual Assault on the Relation Between Hope and Suicidal Risk in College Students.

Edward C. Chang, Tina Yu, Zunaira Jilani, Erin E. Fowler, Elizabeth A. Yu, Jiachen Lin, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology

The present study sought to examine for how hope and sexual assault are involved in suicidal risk in a sample of 325 college students. Specifically, we were interested to examine whether sexual assault may play an additive as well as interactive role in the prediction of suicidal risk (viz., suicidal behaviors & reasons for living) above and beyond hope. Results from regression analyses indicated that hope and sexual assault were important and unique predictors of suicidal risk in students. Moreover, we found some support for a Hope × Sexual Assault interaction in predicting both suicidal behaviors and reasons for living. However, only the findings for suicidal behaviors remained after controlling for concurrent depressive symptomatology. Some important implications of the present findings are discussed.


Loneliness under assault: Understanding the impact of sexual assault on the relation between loneliness and suicidal risk in college students.

Edward C. Chang, Xiang Lian, Tina Yu, Junjie Qu, Bohan Zhang, Wenwen Jia, Qin Hu, Junzi Li, Jiaqing Wu, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Personality and Individual Differences

The present study sought to examine for how loneliness and sexual assault are involved in predicting suicidal risk (viz., hopelessness & suicide probability) in a sample of 334 college students. Specifically, we were interested in examining whether sexual assault may play an additive as well as interactive role in the prediction of suicidal risk above and beyond loneliness. Results from regression analyses indicated that both loneliness and sexual assault were important and unique predictors of suicidal risk in students. Moreover, consistent with expectations, we found support for a Loneliness × Sexual Assault interaction in predicting both hopelessness and suicide probability. Inspection of the interactions indicated that the highest levels of suicidal risk were present for lonely students who had experienced some form of sexual assault. Some important implications of the present findings are discussed.


Ethnic variations between Asian and European Americans in interpersonal sources of socially prescribed perfectionism: It’s not just about parents!

Marisa J. Perera & Edward C. Chang

Asian American Journal of Psychology

A set of interpersonal sources that represent the high standards of socially prescribed perfectionism (viz., parents, teachers, friends, peers, culture, intimate partner, & siblings) was tested as a predictor of socially prescribed perfectionism in a sample of European American and Asian American university students. Results indicated that there are several sources involved in socially prescribed perfectionism in both European Americans and Asian Americans. Noteworthy, beyond variance accounted for by parent standards, teacher standards were found to account for a large amount of variance in socially prescribed perfectionism in European Americans while peer standards were found to account for a large amount of variance in Asian Americans. Implications for future research involving ethnic variations in the interpersonal sources that represent the unrealistically high standards of socially prescribed perfectionism are discussed.


Understanding the Relationship Between Domestic Abuse and Suicide Behavior in Primary Care Adults: Does Forgiveness Matter?

Edward C. Chang, Emma R. Kahle, Elizabeth A. Yu, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Social Work

This study examined the relations between domestic abuse, forgiveness (of self vs. of others), and suicide behavior in a community sample of 101 primary care patients. As expected, greater experience of domestic abuse was associated with greater suicide behavior. Results from conducting mediation analyses, using bootstrapping techniques, provided support for a model in which the relationship between domestic abuse and suicide behavior was accounted for by forgiveness of self, but not by forgiveness of others. Some implications of the present findings for practice are discussed.

 


UNDERSTANDING HOW DOMESTIC ABUSE IS ASSOCIATED WITH GREATER DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE OF FEMALE PRIMARY CARE PATIENTS: DOES LACK OF BELONGINGNESS MATTER?

Edward C. Chang, Emma R. Kahle, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Violence Against Women

violence against women cover

This study examined the relationship between domestic abuse, belongingness, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of 71 female primary care patients. As expected, domestic abuse was associated with greater depressive symptoms. Results from conducting mediation analyses, including bootstrapping techniques, provided strong convergent support for a model in which the hypothesized effect of domestic abuse on depressive symptoms in women is mediated by a loss of belongingness. Noteworthy, even after controlling for content overlap between measures of belongingness and depressive symptoms, the mediation model remained significant. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.


 

Examining the structure, reliability, and validity of the Chinese Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II: Evidence for the importance of intentional self-change among Chinese

Hongfei Yang & Edward C. Chang

Journal of Personality Assessment

We examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Chinese version of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale–II (CPGIS–II) using data from a sample of 927 Chinese university students. Consistent with previous findings, confirmatory factor analyses supported a 4-factor model of the CPGIS–II. Reliability analyses indicated that the 4 CPGIS–II subscales, namely Readiness for Change, Planfulness, Using Resources, and Intentional Behavior, demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and adequate test–retest reliability across a 4-week period. In addition, evidence for convergent and incremental validity was found in relation to measures of positive and negative psychological adjustment. Finally, results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the 4 personal growth initiative dimensions, especially planfulness, accounted for additional unique variance in psychological adjustment beyond resilience. Some implications for using the CPGIS–II in Chinese are discussed. 


Perfectionism and Loneliness as Predictors of Depressive and Anxious Symptoms in Asian and European Americans: Do Self-Construal Schemas Also Matter?

Edward C. Chang Cognitive Therapy and Research

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In the present study, we examined ethnic differences in perfectionism, loneliness, and self-construal schemas, as unique predictors of depressive and anxious symptoms in a sample of 223 Asian Americans and 309 European Americans. Results of comparative analyses indicated greater concern over mistakes, parental expectations, parental criticism, doubts about actions, loneliness, and interdependence in Asian, compared to European Americans. Furthermore, results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated support for a pan-ethnic model involving perfectionism and loneliness as additive predictors of both depressive and anxious symptoms across Asian and European Americans. Interestingly, across both ethnic groups, self-construal was found to augment the prediction model of depressive symptoms, beyond what was accounted for by perfectionism and loneliness. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.


Predictors of Eating Disturbances in South Asian American Females and Males: A Look at Negative Affectivity and Contingencies of Self-Worth

Edward C. Chang, Marissa J. Perera, & Yvonne Kupfermann Asian American Journal of Psychology

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In the present study, we looked at sex differences in negative affectivity and contingencies of self-worth as predictors of eating disturbances (viz., drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms, and body dissatisfaction) in a South Asian American sample of 97 females and 83 males. Females, compared with males, were found to report greater self-worth involving others’ approval, appearance, academic competition, and greater drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction. Results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated that for females, negative affectivity accounted for significant variance in each of the three eating disturbance outcomes. Furthermore, the inclusion of contingencies of self-worth was found to account for additional unique variance in eating disturbances within this group. In contrast, regression results obtained for males generally failed to support the utility of a prediction model of eating disturbances involving negative affectivity and contingencies of self-worth. Implications of the present findings for understanding sex differences in eating disturbances in South Asian Americans are discussed.


An Examination of Optimism/Pessimism and Suicide Risk in Primary Care Patients: Does Belief in a Changeable Future Make a Difference?

Edward C. Chang, Elizabeth A. Yu, Jenny Y. Lee, Jameson K. Hirsch, Yvonne Kupfermann, & Emma R. Kahle

Cognitive Therapy and Research

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An integrative model involving optimism/pessimism and future orientation as predictors of suicide risk (viz., depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior) was tested in a sample of adult, primary care patients. Beyond the additive influence of the two predictors of suicide risk, optimism/pessimism and future orientation were also hypothesized to interact together to exacerbate suicide risk. Results indicated that optimism/pessimism was a robust predictor of suicide risk in adults. Future orientation was found to add significant incremental validity to the prediction of depressive symptoms, but not of suicidal behavior. Noteworthy, the optimism/pessimism future orientation interaction was found to significantly augment the prediction of both depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior. Implications for therapeutic enhancement of future-oriented constructs in the treatment of suicidal individuals are discussed.


Is Doubling Up on Positive Future Cognitions Associated with Lower Suicidal Risk in Latinos?: A Look at Hope and Positive Problem Orientation

Edward C. Chang, Elizabeth A. Yu, Emma R. Kahle, Elizabeth L. Jeglic, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Cognitive Therapy and Research

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In the present study, we examined hope and positive problem orientation as additive predictors of suicidal risk, namely, hopelessness and suicide behavior, in a sample of 155 (37 males and 118 females) Latinos. Consistent with expectations, we found hope and positive problem orientation to be associated with lower suicidal risk. In addition, results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated that hope accounted for significant variance in both indices of suicidal risk. Moreover, the inclusion of positive problem orientation as a predictor was found to account for additional unique variance in both indices of suicidal risk, beyond what was accounted for by hope. Finally, results of conducting additional analyses indicated a significant Hope Positive Problem Orientation interaction effect in accounting for suicidal risk. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.


An Examination of Ethnic Variations in Perfectionism and Interpersonal Influences as Predictors of Eating Disturbances: A Look at Asian and European American Females

Edward C. Chang, Elizabeth A. Yu, & Elizabeth Y. Lin

Asian American Journal of Psychology

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This study assessed ethnic variations in perfectionism, interpersonal influences, and eating disturbances, namely, drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms, among 139 Asian American and 159 European American females (Mage = 19.55 years). Results of comparative analyses indicated significant normative differences in perfectionism. Specifically, Asian American females, compared with European American females, reported greater parental expectations and parental criticism. Of note, when we assessed the usefulness of a prediction model that included perfectionism and interpersonal influences, perfectionism failed to account for significant variance in drive for thinness in Asian American females. Alternatively, interpersonal influences were found to account for robust amounts of unique variance in eating disturbances across both Asian and European American females. Some implications of the present findings for understanding ethnic differences in predictors of eating disturbances are discussed.


On the Confluence of Optimism and Hope on Depressive Symptoms in Primary Care Patients: Does Doubling Up on Bonum Futurum Proffer any Added Benefits?

Edward C. Chang, Elizabeth A. Yu, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Journal of Positive Psychology

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A model involving optimism and hope as predictors of depressive symptoms was tested in a sample of 28 male and 67 female primary care patients. Beyond the distinct influence of the two predictors on depressive symptoms, optimism and hope were also hypothesized to interact together to predict depressive symptoms. Results of a regression analysis indicated that, independent of demographic variables (viz. age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, and educational level), optimism and hope were significant and unique predictors of depressive symptoms in adults. Noteworthy, beyond optimism and hope, the Optimism Hope interaction term was found to significantly augment the prediction of depressive symptoms. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.


Relations of Religiosity and Spirituality with Depressive Symptoms in Primary Care Adults: Evidence for Hope Agency and Pathway as Mediators

Edward C. Chang, Emma R. Kahle, Elizabeth A. Yu, Jenny Y. Lee, Yvonne Kupfermann, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Journal of Positive Psychology

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This study examined hope agency and pathway as potential mediators of the associations of religiosity and spirituality with depressive symptoms in an adult sample of 101 primary care adults. Results of conducting multiple mediation tests indicated that hope agency and pathway fully and significantly accounted for the associations of religiosity and spirituality with depressive symptoms. In contrast, an alternative mediation model involving religiosity and spirituality as potential mediators of the associations of hope agency and pathway with depressive symptoms failed to be supported. Overall, our findings offer support for the contention that hope agency and pathway play important roles in accounting for the associations of religiosity and spirituality with psychological adjustment in adults. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.


Behavioral inhibition system and behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS) motives and loneliness as predictors of eating disturbances in female college students: Interpersonal context matters?

Edward C. Chang, Emma R. Kahle, Elizabeth A. Yu, & Jameson K. Hirsch

Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology

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The purpose of this study was to examine behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS) motives and loneliness as predictors of eating disturbances (viz., drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms, & body dissatisfaction) in female college students. Three hundred and one female college students (ages ranging from 18-33 years) completed measures assessing for BIS/BAS motives, loneliness, and eating disturbances. Results of conducting regression analyses indicated that BIS/BAS motives, especially BIS motives, accounted for significant amounts of variance across all three eating disturbance outcomes examined (R2 range = .10 – .13). Moreover, the inclusion of loneliness as a predictor of eating disturbances was found to account for additional unique amounts of variance (DR2 range = .02 to .06), over what was accounted for by BIS/BAS motives. These findings indicate that in addition to the potential role of biologically linked variables like BIS/BAS motives, it is important to also consider the contributions of important psychosocial variables like loneliness for understanding eating disturbances among female college students.