Reading is one of the most important skills learned in early childhood. Unfortunately, bilingual learners —15% of the US public school population—often fail to meet national standards in reading achievement. The variation in bilinguals’ reading proficiency makes it difficult to differentiate typically developing learners from those with learning disabilities. To improve bilinguals’ reading achievement and better support those with dyslexia, we must first understand how bilingualism affects child literacy.
Cochlear implant is a revolutionary treatment that can now be applied from infancy through adulthood to rehabilitate hearing, communication, and spoken language. Due to the ferromagnetic components of the cochlear implant (CI), functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is the most suitable neuroimaging technique to monitor the outcomes of brain plasticity and reorganization for language and hearing in the CI patients.