Poster Submissions

A poster reception took place on Thursday, May 3rd at the Michigan League at 5:30 p.m. The poster reception provided a forum for students, researchers, community members, survivors, and other interested groups to share their work on gender-based violence.

We received many submissions. Through the review process, we were able to group the accepted presentations into six categories.

Please see below for a preview of the accepted poster presentations by category.

Broader impact of sexual assault in the social world

Author – Anastasia Machasic

Affiliations – Michigan State University

Title – Family Criminogenic Risk Scores of Female Offenders who are Victims of Human Trafficking

Abstract – Girls facing dysfunctional family environments have higher risk of being involved in juvenile sex trafficking, and to engage in crime (Choi, 2015). This study compares family criminogenic risk factors for female juvenile offenders who are, and who are not, victims of human trafficking. Using data from a juvenile court, we obtained scores from the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory to determine family criminogenic risk. Youth were classified as victims of juvenile sex trafficking by law enforcement or court practitioners.  We hypothesize that trafficked youth will demonstrate greater family criminogenic risk compared to youth who are not trafficking victims.

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Author – Diana Curtis

Affiliations – University of Michigan

Title – Feminizing Fear: Investigating the Intersections of Paranoia, Empathy, and Sex

Abstract – The Localization of Affective Sounds and Emotion Ratings (LASER) study conducted by the University of Michigan’s Exploration of Psychopathology in Clinical Science (EPICS) Lab used a fearful mood induction story to induce subclinical levels of paranoia in neurotypical subjects. Using a mixed-methods analysis, this study evaluates sex differences in paranoia and empathy scores and asks how empathy and sex moderate paranoia. Results show that women in the fearful condition had the highest empathy scores, potentially predicting the trend of their higher paranoia scores, while fearful men did not experience significantly greater empathy than neutral participants. This study contextualizes the fearful mood induction story with gender-based violence on the University of Michigan’s campus and uses participants’ responses to illustrate how women’s well-founded fears are pathologized by clinical measurements.

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Author – Leanna Papp

Affiliations – University of Michigan

Title – The Normalization of Sexualized Aggression on College Campuses

Abstract – The “1-in-5” statistic of campus sexual assault has maintained public attention over the past decade. However, more needs to be understood about subtle and mundane behaviors that normalize aggressiveness in heterosexual interactions before (and perhaps leading up to) sexual violence. To investigate these questions, we designed a two phase multi-method study with college women (18-24). In phase one, we analyzed climate data collected by a large public Midwestern university. Data supported the 1-in-5 statistic (i.e., 21% of women reported experiencing assault). We found a significant difference in disclosure rates between women who knew their assailants and those who did not; furthermore, we found that many women labeled the incident as a “big deal.” In phase two, we designed a focus group study to understand experiences that precede assault and are part of the larger constellation of sexual aggression. Specifically, we asked young women to talk about experiences at parties, including how they interpreted and reacted to sexually aggressive behaviors by men. Together, this mixed-methods approach aims to highlight the frequency of sexual assault, how these experiences are normalized, as well as more “minor” but ubiquitous forms of sexual aggression that lay the foundation for women’s interpretations of assault as a “big deal.”

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Author – Harley Dutcher

Affiliations – Departments of Psychology & Women’s Studies, University of Michigan

Title – The burden of “safe sex”: Identifying young women’s sexual safety labor

Abstract – Definitions of “safe sex” often focus on teaching young women to use condoms and contraception during vaginal intercourse. These interventions, however, do not recognize efforts for safety in sexual relationships that includes, but extends beyond, condoms and contraception. In this study, we drew on in-depth interviews with young women ages 18-28 to examine efforts to achieve “sexual safety.” We found young women developed strict contraceptive regimens, controlled sexual desire until they were in long term relationships, and developed criteria for selecting male partners in an effort to feel “safe” during sexual experiences. In our analysis, we focused on theories of sexual labor (Cacchioni 2007; McClelland 2017) to identify the work young women do in heterosexual relationships to be safe. Our focus on young women’s sexual labor proved useful in identifying gendered patterns that we argue have become naturalized as characteristics of idealized adolescent sexuality, such as “good” contraceptive behavior, “waiting” to have sex, and “careful” decision-making. We argue that these patterns demonstrate vigilance in sexual relationships that has become part of young women’s required repertoire of safe sex behaviors. In the discussion, we argue for the relevance of sexual labor to public health campaigns that teach young people about “safe sex.”

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Author – Charlie Brink

Affiliations – School of Social Work, University of Michigan

Title – Community Effects of Sexual Violence by Combatants in Eastern DRC

Abstract – Mass sexual violence, mostly by combatants, has ravaged the Eastern DRC for decades. Although many researchers have studied the effects of sexual violence on individuals and families, communities have been forgotten. Jocelyn Kelly at Harvard’s Human Rights Initiative notes the gap in the literature for studying how communities are affected and how important the community level is to this region. A Mixed methods approach was used to explore what areas of the communities have been affected by sexual violence using a collective trauma lens. The team conducted focus groups, collected publicly available data, and collected over 900 surveys from two areas in Eastern Congo, one that was heavily affected by sexual violence and one that was affected only by physical violence by combatants. After preliminary analysis, locations that experienced more SV had lower income and assets, less community-seeking behavior, less reported social interactions, and did not allow their children to play unsupervised as often. Other factors that may contribute to these findings are currently being explored and analyzed in preparation for publication.

Intersectionality and gender-based violence

Author – McKenzie Javorka

Affiliations – Department of Psychology, Michigan State University

Title – Challenges in Providing Culturally Responsive Victim Services to College Sexual Assault Survivors

Abstract – Survivors of campus sexual assault often have multiple post-assault needs, ranging from counseling and advocacy to medical care. The availability of these types of victim services on college campuses has increased in recent years. However, research is lacking on the extent to which campus victim services are accessible and helpful to students with marginalized and minority identities. Intersectionality theory posits that individuals’ experiences of violence and oppression are shaped by multiple interacting social identities (e.g., race/ethnicity, socioeconomic class, gender, sexual orientation), and that responses to violence must attune to these different identities. Culturally responsive victim services are those that not only address the aftermath of sexual violence, but that are accessible and tailored to individuals who face other forms of discrimination and oppression. In this study, we interviewed 22 national experts on responses to campus sexual assault about key challenges in providing advocacy, counseling, and medical services to college survivors. Participants represented a variety of disciplinary backgrounds (e.g., legal and victim advocacy, medical, law enforcement) and had all worked as training and technical assistance providers across multiple settings and institutions. Data were collected using semi-structured phone interviews and analyzed using an analytic induction approach. Findings will be presented regarding key challenges in providing culturally responsive services to college survivors from marginalized and minority groups, including barriers to seeking care from existing services as well as experts’ recommendations for improving the cultural responsivity of services. Future directions for research in this understudied area will also be presented.

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Author – Janis Lai

Affiliations – Graduate Rackham International

Title – Cultural perception of gender-based violence and how it affects international students

Abstract – The University of Michigan has a large population of international students, and domestic students who identify with various cultures, races and ethnicities. While there are resources available for students who are victims of gender-based violence, it is likely that some students feel compelled to remain silent given their cultural upbringing and ingrained negative perception on sexual violence. Graduate Rackham International (GRIN), a Rackham-sponsored, student-run organization serving graduate students, has put forth effort in raising awareness of such issues in the community and in educating members on when and where to get help, if such need arises. Here we present data on how cultural background affects students’ perception on gender-based violence, and campaigns we ran on the topic.

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Author – Jessica Kiebler

Affiliations – LSA Department Psychology, University of Michigan

Title – An Intersectional Approach to Understanding Victim Blame in Sexual Assault, Sexual Harassment, and Incivility

Abstract – Each participant read a vignette about a woman’s experience with either sexual assault, sexual harassment, or incivility in which her socioeconomic status (middle-class or working-class) and race (Black or White) was manipulated. Participants were then asked to respond to questions about victim blame attribution, perceived femininity, sexualization, responsibility, and stress of the woman in the scenario they read. We analyzed results through three-way ANOVAs looking at class, race, and incident’s effects on the various independent variables. Results for victim blame attribution show a two-way interaction between class and race. For femininity, sexualization, and responsibility class was statistically significant revealing that working-class women were seen as less feminine and responsible, and more sexualized. For perceived stress of the woman, incident was significant where sexual assault was seen as most stressful, followed by sexual harassment, and incivility was seen as the least stressful. There was also a significant three-way interaction between race, class, and incident on perceptions of stress for the victim.

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Author – Angubeen Khan

Affiliations – School of Nursing, University of Michigan

Title – A Qualitative Study of Intimate Partner Violence Norms in an Arab-American Community

Abstract – Introduction: Intimate partner violence affects one in three women globally, yet there are few empirical studies that document IPV among Arab American women. Previously, studies on Arab Americans have focused on spousal attitudes regarding IPV. This study investigates if IPV is an issue in the Arab American community and examines how sociocultural norms influence IPV experiences. Design: Focus groups were conducted with providers and stakeholders in the local Arab American community and semi-structured interviews were conducted with community women. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews focused on IPV norms, reproductive health decision-making, and recommendations for a culturally-tailored needs assessment survey. Results: Initial findings suggest that IPV is an issue of critical concern in the Arab American community. Several respondents discussed the challenges of disclosing physical or emotional violence in relationships and seeking IPV related services. Often IPV is accepted or dealt with privately within a family. Respondents were less aware of sexual coercion occurring; some respondents felt it may happen but not be discussed. Respondents also discussed that women in this community may not perceive certain forms of IPV as abuse due to cultural norms of marital relationships. Conclusion: IPV is a public health concern among Arab Americans, but resources can be difficult to access due to sociocultural barriers. This study also establishes the need for a socially- and culturally-tailored quantitative assessment that determines prevalence and attitudes about IPV in the Arab American community.

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Authors – Katherine Martin, Cassidy Guros

Affiliations – University of Michigan

Title – To What Extent Do Colleges and Universities Support Their LGBTQ+ Survivors of Sexual Assault?

Abstract – This project is part of a broader study of how colleges and universities in the United States are responding to sexual assault on campus. Under Title IX, colleges and universities are required to “maintain an environment free from discrimination,” which includes sexual assault. In this current stage in the project, we are coding the Annual Security Reports (ASR), Sexual Misconduct Policies (SMP), and web sites from the 382 schools in our sample to see how they are complying with Title IX and how they are supporting their student survivors of sexual assault. Previous data collection from the website pages, using search terms such as “LGBT”, “transgender”, and “queer,” determined how many schools were considering LGBTQ+ students when providing resources and information to student survivors of sexual assault. About half of the schools in our sample, to various extents, recognized the intersection of LGBTQ+ identities within their sexual assault resources and information. Out of our sample of schools that recognized LGBTQ+ students, we qualitatively analyzed the extent of support and resources provided via the schools’ webpages. We examined if schools were just merely providing a hotline or more supportive resources. This project aims to understand the extent to which US Colleges and Universities recognize the intersection between LGBTQ+ identities and sexual misconduct and the unique challenges LGBTQ+ survivors experience. Based on our findings we can conclude that US colleges and Universities are not doing nearly enough to support their LGBTQ students and survivors of sexual assault.

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Authors – Emily Sheridan-Fulton, Lindsay Cannon, Michelle Munro-Kramer

Affiliations – School of Social Work, School of Public Health, School of Nursing, University of Michigan

Title – A retrospective descriptive analysis of SANE records at a large Midwestern Emergency Department from 2002-2017

Abstract – Statement of Purpose: An estimated 1 in 5 women and 1 in 16 men endure sexual assault during their college career, making rape the most frequent violent crime occurring on campus. Since the 1970s, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs have provided medical treatment and forensic exams to survivors seeking aid. The purpose of this study is: 1) to describe the characteristics of individuals seeking services for sexual assault at an Emergency Department between 2002-2017, and 2) to explore trends related to sexual assault over this 16-year period, including disability status and the presence of drugs/alcohol. Methods/Approach: We conducted a retrospective descriptive analysis of SANE records from 2002-2017 (N = 856) at a large Midwestern university Emergency Department. These data include demographics, characteristics of the assault, description of physical injuries, and evidence collected. Data for college-aged patients (18-24) were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Analyses are in progress. Preliminary results indicate that a large percentage of survivors report their experiences of sexual violence involved drugs and/or alcohol. Additionally, a large proportion of survivors report having a mental and/or physical disability. Conclusions: Survivors of sexual violence seeking services at Michigan Medicine’s Emergency Department tend to be a vulnerable population, supporting previous research. Innovation & Significance to the Field: Results from this research further the understanding of college-aged survivors seeking services, which will inform interventions to prevent sexual assault on and around university campuses. Results also point to the need for systematic data collection to inform service provision within healthcare settings and regions.

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Author – Sarah Peitzmeier

Affiliations – School of Nursing, University of Michigan

Title – A Systematic Review of Intimate Partner Violence in Transgender Populations

Abstract – Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a severe public health problem that can lead to physical injury, mental health issues, HIV/STI transmission risk, and even homicide. The majority of IPV research has viewed gender from a binary perspective, with the underlying assumption that perpetrators and victims of IPV are either male or female, and focused on the prevention of violence by men against women in heterosexual relationships. Although there has been growing research focused on IPV in same-sex relationships, few studies have focused on transgender (trans) people (i.e., individuals whose gender is different from their sex assigned at birth), for whom IPV may take on unique dimensions due to gendered vulnerabilities to violence. We undertook a systematic review of the literature and identified approximately 100 quantitative and qualitative studies that include primary data on IPV in transgender populations. We present our findings on the prevalence of IPV in trans populations, demographic correlates of IPV within trans populations, and evidence on the health impact of IPV in trans communities. Finally, we present a critical methodological review of the existing literature on IPV in trans populations and offer recommendations for important future directions in the field.

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Authors – Schwert Kia, Julia Whang

Affiliations – University of Michigan

Title – Understanding Religious University Responses to Combat Sexual Violence on Campus

Abstract – Sexual assault on college campuses is too common. Under Federal Mandates Title IX and the Clery Act it is a university’s responsibility to prevent sexual assault on campus; however, we hypothesize that not all universities treat this responsibility the same way. In the current study, we determine whether or not religious affiliations leads schools to have prevention programs, as well as develop a characterization of how the particular university may deal with sexual misconduct at large. Our sample represents 50 universities, half of which claim a religious affiliation and the other half of the schools do not. To determine how a school may characterize sexual misconduct, we conducted a content analysis of the schools’ Annual Security Reports. In general, we find that religious schools offer fewer prevention programs than non-religious schools. Additionally, religious institutions are more likely to have language in their policies that blames the victim for their own assaults. These findings suggest that religious universities are more likely than non-religious universities to place the burden of sexual assault prevention on their students. Based on our findings, we offer recommendations for more standardized policy when it comes to the universities’ response to sexual assault prevention and response.”

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Author – Jonte Jones

Affiliations – Science in Color

Title – Women of Color and Gender-Based Violence in STEM

Abstract – The #MeToo movement has given rise to a cultural moment where women finally have a voice to confront and discuss their own experiences with gender-based violence while also holding men accountable. Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) fields have not been spared by this spotlight and, unsurprisingly, countless instances of sexual misconduct, harassment, and assault have been exposed.  Although the movement is undeniably a step in the right direction towards addressing misogyny and the damaging effects of patriarchy, it is also markedly lacking the voices of women of color (WoC) and fails in addressing the important intersection of race and gender, especially in STEM.  In general, WoC are victims of harassment and assault at higher rates than white women according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.  This may be particularly true in the white, male-dominated world of STEM.  A recent study published in The Journal of Geophysical Research surveyed over 400 women in the astronomy field showed that WoC experienced the highest rates of sexual harassment and assault in the workplace.  Additionally, a study conducted by The University of California’s Hastings College of Law surveyed 557 women in STEM revealing that 100 percent of WoC encounter workplace gender bias.  Although staggering, these data represent a paucity of the research investigating sexual harassment of WoC in STEM.  In an environment already inhospitable to women and people of color, it is important to acknowledge and center the voices of those whose intersecting identities often find them further marginalized and silenced.

Preventing gender-based violence

Authors – Laura McAndrew, Danielle Dros

Affiliations – University Health Service, SAPAC, University of Michigan

Title – “Alcohol Slows Down My Brain So I Can’t Think”: Students’ Pre-Hookup Alcohol Use and Implications for Sexual Assault Prevention

Abstract – Though not causative, alcohol use is a frequent contributor in campus sexual assaults. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism estimates that alcohol contributes to 97,000 sexual assaults on college campuses annually. Despite this and other harm, alcohol retains a strong presence in many campus social scenes and in many students’ sexual interactions. For example, 18% of University of Michigan undergraduates report that more than 33% of their sexual experiences in the last year occurred while they were drunk. Addressing high-risk alcohol use and campus sexual assault together poses seemingly endless ethical questions including: How can we acknowledge risk but prevent victim-blaming? Can we talk about alcohol-related sexual assault without discussing the prevalence of alcohol in consensual sex? How does our campus define how alcohol affects consent, and do students understand or agree with this definition? How can we prevent marginalizing students who are abstinent or in recovery?  How can we help students move beyond policy-related goals of “not getting in trouble” and toward a positive, ethical sexuality? Quantitative and qualitative data describe the prevalence of alcohol in students’ consensual and non-consensual experiences, as well as students’ perceived benefits and drawbacks of consuming alcohol prior to their sexual experiences. One university’s approaches to engaging this intersection include Relationship Remix (a required healthy relationships workshop for first-year students) and Raise the Bar (a bystander intervention training for local bar staff). Challenges and future directions for blending alcohol harm reduction and sexual violence prevention are highlighted.

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Author – Christine Fei

Affiliations – End Rape on Campus

Title – The Campus Accountability Map: Creating Institutional Accountability in the Age of Trump

Abstract – This presentation will explore the Campus Accountability Map, the first and only national resource and database on campus policies on sexual assault across the country. The Campus Accountability Map provides in-depth school summaries detailing each school’s prevention efforts, investigation procedures, and available survivor support resources based on best practices. The presentation will provide background on recent rollbacks on Title IX protections that impact college and university accountability and explore adaptive and innovative approaches to institutional accountability under the current political climate, including ways of using the Campus Accountability Map, as a powerful tool.

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Author – Mariana Arguelles Alcazar

Affiliations – Sexperteam, Wolverine Wellness, University Health Service

Title – Peer Education: A Tool for Ending Gender-Based Violence

Abstract – Sexperteam is a peer education group housed in Wolverine Wellness at University Health Service. Our mission is to promote sexual health awareness and wellness at the University of Michigan and in the broader Ann Arbor community. We provide resources including tools for navigating interpersonal relationships, free safer sex items, and connections to relevant services. Sexperteam employs an inclusive and non-judgmental approach to sexual health education with careful consideration to intersections of identity. Our primary outreach projects include Relationship Remix, a sexual health and relationship workshop for all first-year students; Sexpertise, an annual sexual health conference; and tailored programming for student organizations. Through these initiatives, Sexperteam aims to initiate open dialogue and reduce sexual health stigma to create a culture that rejects gender-based violence. Our education and outreach missions equip community members with skills to recognize and combat gender-based violence. Our workshops grant students space for introspection to identify personal values and use this information to achieve healthier relationships and lives. Students also learn gender-based violence prevention and intervention techniques, such as identifying enthusiastic verbal consent and the lack thereof. The utilization of peer educators in outreach efforts makes the material easily relatable to students. Students feel more comfortable sharing their voices, which generates meaningful dialogue. Collaborating with key organizations on campus, such as PULSE and SAPAC, is another integral aspect of Sexperteam’s multifaceted, wide-reaching, and community-responsive approach. In combination, these strategies work to address the sexual health needs of the community and ultimately end gender-based violence.

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Author – Meghan Meneguzzi

Affiliations – The Coral

Title – Aggregating community insights to derive best practices in dating and intimacy in college

Abstract – While one in five women and one in sixteen men are sexually assaulted while in college, more than 90% of sexual assault victims on college campuses do not report the assault (National Sexual Violence Resource Center). According to the 2015 Campus Climate Survey Regarding Sexual Misconduct, these alarming, pervasive statistics of sexual violence and inefficacy of justice systems for sexual assault extend to the University of Michigan as well. What is especially troubling is that these realities hold in the face of significant leadership attention and resources on campus for sexual assault awareness and prevention: among them the 2015 Campus Climate Survey, SAPAC staff and programming, and organizations like Gender Violence Project at Michigan Law, SafeMD, and University Students Against Rape. To our team, the discrepancy between effort and outcome calls attention to the need for alternative approaches to the problems our community is experiencing in dating and intimacy. The proposed alternative consists primarily of: (1) seeking to understand dating and intimacy challenges, naive solutions, and best practices from the experience of students, both through one-on-one interviews and community discussion (2) sharing these insights via an online blog format, which is consistent with the typical format of consuming information for the undergraduate population. The results that follow highlight the most commonly cited issues in dating intimacy as well as the naive solutions and best practices discovered for each major issue area: self-awareness, communication, wellness, relationships, and physical intimacy.

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Author – Yasamin Kusunoki

Affiliations – School of Nursing, University of Michigan

Title – Adapting a life skills application to address interpersonal relationships among non-4-year-college-enrolled youth

Abstract – Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious health concern among young adults. Women aged 18-25 experience the highest rate of violence perpetrated by an intimate partner. 70% of female survivors and 54% of male survivors reported that their first experience of IPV occurred prior to the age of 25. Despite recent focus on IPV on college campuses, evidence suggests that non-4-year-college-enrolled women are at higher risk for IPV. Limited data are available on effective primary prevention programs targeted at reducing IPV among non-4-year-college-enrolled youth. We used the ADAPT-ITT model to adapt a pre-existing life skills web-based application to address IPV among non-4-year-college-enrolled youth. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with non-4-year-college-enrolled youth between the ages of 18-25 and healthcare providers from local clinics. Semi-structured interviews focused on interpersonal relationships, IPV, community resources for IPV, and recommendations for an intervention related to healthy relationships and IPV. Results: The study is still in progress. Preliminary analyses highlight the need for additional resources related to forming healthy relationships and identifying characteristics of unhealthy and abusive relationships. Additionally, content is needed related to the range of relationships relevant to this population, including casual, committed, cohabiting, and co-parenting relationships. Conclusions: The ADAPT-ITT framework is a useful model for adapting a pre-existing web-based intervention to meet the needs of non-4-year-college-enrolled youth related to healthy relationships and IPV. Participants indicated the need for an intervention to provide information about healthy relationships and IPV, specifically with content relevant to diverse relationship contexts and social identities.

Survivors’ voices

Author – Lindsay Cannon

Affiliations – School of Nursing, University of Michigan

Title – Patient Satisfaction with Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Services and Post-Assault Resource Utilization at a University Health Center Compared to an Emergency Department

Abstract – In the United States 1.3 million women experience rape each year, with current estimates of 22 million female rape survivors. Further, 1 in 5 women and 1 in 16 men experience sexual assault in college. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs were developed in the 1970s to improve care for sexual violence survivors by providing medical forensic exams by specially trained nurses. The purpose of this study is to address a gap in the literature about how the location of SANE exams impacts satisfaction with services and use of post-assault resources. Methods/Approach: Participants completed satisfaction surveys via Qualtrics following SANE exams at the Emergency Department (ED) (N=49) or a university health center (UHC) (N=9) in the same city from January 2016-April 2018. A second survey about experiences accessing/barriers to utilizing post-assault services was emailed to participants 4-6 weeks post-exam. Results: Preliminary analyses indicate that patient satisfaction with privacy, healthcare facilities, and SANE providers did not differ between the two settings. College-aged survivors who received UHC services were significantly more likely to seek resources for their additional post-assault healthcare needs than those who received ED services (p=.02). Conclusions: Survivors found UHC services as satisfactory as services provided at the gold standard ED and were more likely to utilize post-assault healthcare services.  Innovation and Significance to the Field: Incorporation of SANE exams into the UHC provides additional post-assault care options for college-aged survivors who may have more positive long-term health outcomes due to greater likelihood of accessing post-assault healthcare.

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Author – Ana Lisa Alvarez

Affiliations – LA VIDA

Title – Loteria Art Project

Abstract – La Lotería is a Mexican game of chance, similar to bingo that has been around for more than a century. It is a family favorite during gatherings. Our five, 16×20 art canvas, “Loteria Art Project”, challenges the topics of gender, relationships, gender roles, equality and what it means to be a Latinx youth in our generation today. Our project has provided an opportunity for all members to be able to express their identity and individuality and to be able to voice their opinions. Through this entirely youth led project, we were able to deconstruct gender roles and messaging in culturally appropriate ways while looking toward the future. LA VIDA Youth Board members reported that this project allowed participants to enhance critical thinking skills, challenge the stereotypical traditions for future generations, and provided opportunities for community involvement and room for open discussion.

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Author – Sharon Shen

Affiliations – School of Nursing, University of Michigan

Title – Intimate Partner Violence and Psychological Distress Among Emerging Adult Women

Abstract – Background: The increased prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and psychological distress (PD) during emerging adulthood has severe long-term health consequences. Yet, there remains a paucity of literature about the relationship between IPV, PD, and its impact during emerging adulthood, mostly due to data limitations that hinder the ability to account for the potentially reciprocal relationship between IPV and PD. Objectives: Given this potential reciprocal relationship, we had two main objectives. First, we examined the influence of past IPV on current PD, which consisted of four measures: depression, stress, loneliness, and low self-esteem. Second, we investigated the influence of past PD on the incidence of future IPV. Methods: Using existing longitudinal data from the Relationship Dynamic and Social Life (RDSL) study, we estimated bivariate and multivariable regressions for 18- and 19- year-old partnered women (N=726). We first estimated logistic regressions predicting each measure of current PD as a function of past IPV. We then estimated multinomial logistic regressions to predict future IPV as a function of each measure of past PD. Results: Past IPV was significantly associated with current PD, and remained significant net of sociodemographic characteristics, past adolescent experiences, and relationship type for each PD measure except low self-esteem. Additionally, past PD was significantly associated with both types of future IPV, but only psychological IPV was significant across all four PD measures. Conclusions: These findings suggest that early identification and intervention among emerging adult women who experience IPV and/or PD is crucial for the long-term well-being of this population.

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Authors – Kamaria Porter, Nicole Bedera

Affiliations – School of Education, LSA Department of Sociology, University of Michigan

Title – “I Doubt a Student Would Event Want to Report”: College Students’ Reactions to Campus Sexual Misconduct Policies

Abstract – In response to pressures from the federal government, the media, and student  activism, universities have changed their policies regarding student to student sexual misconduct.  The changes to Title IX policies and procedures across the nation have been prolific, but are they meeting student needs? Using qualitative and quantitative data collected through undergraduate students’ evaluations of 381 American universities’ sexual misconduct policies, we find that students have identified core problems that persist in the adjudication of sexual misconduct on campus. Our qualitative data indicates that students found certain policy elements and language so troubling that they imagined the policies would deter student survivors from reporting incidents of sexual misconduct. Furthermore, our quantitative analyses indicated that student reactions to policy language and specific procedures was associated with the overall quality of the sexual misconduct policy, emphasizing the importance of garnering student feedback in crafting effective Title IX policy.

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Author – Dana Beck

Affiliations – School of Nursing, University of Michigan

Title – Healthcare service needs of human trafficking survivors: A secondary analysis

Abstract – Background: Human trafficking is a global societal problem resulting in devastating health, social, economic, and legal consequences for survivors. Due to a lack of screening and response protocols within the healthcare system, there is a dearth of data available to identify the healthcare service needs of survivors of human trafficking. This study will explore the demographics and healthcare service needs of human trafficking survivors who sought legal services at the University of Michigan Law School’s Human Trafficking Clinic (UM-HTC). Methods: This is a secondary analysis of closed case files collected by the UM-HTC from 2009-2017. Data were extracted from legal files by nursing research assistants using a standardized data collection form. Inter-rater reliability was conducted on 10% of the cases and 97.6% agreement was achieved on all cases. Descriptive analyses were conducted to explore the demographics and service needs of human trafficking survivors.  Results: A total of 65 files were analyzed which included 49 female survivors (75.4%) and 16 male survivors (24.6%) ranging in age from 13-68 (M=30.15) years old. Survivors had been involved in labor trafficking (56.9%), sex trafficking (47.7%), and drug trafficking (1.5%). The survivors had entered trafficking between ages 7-53 (M=23.18) years old. The survivors reported a range of abuses during their trafficking experience including physical abuse (52.3%), sexual abuse (50.8%), and emotional abuse (69.2%) that contributed to numerous social, legal, and healthcare needs post-trafficking. In regards to healthcare, 21.5% of participants reported a physical health need and only 50% of those participants had that need resolved during their care at the UM-HTC. Meanwhile, 21.5% of participants also reported a mental health need and only 42.9% of those participants had that need resolved during their care at the UM-HTC.  Conclusions: The results of this study shed additional light onto the service needs of an often hidden population. Human trafficking survivors have comprehensive service needs that cannot be addressed in isolation. There is a need for interdisciplinary collaboration to develop comprehensive screening tools, interventions, and service delivery measures to address the complex needs of this vulnerable population.

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Author – Laura Sinko

Affiliations – School of Nursing, University of Michigan

Title – Finding the Strength to Heal: The Journey of the Self back to Others and the World

Abstract – Despite the wide impact of gender-based violence (GBV) worldwide, little research has focused on the trauma healing processes of women who have experienced GBV, with most research primarily focusing on identifying factors associated with distress and/or adverse outcomes. We used a narrative interview to explore the trauma recovery journey for women who had experienced GBV in order to 1) identify individual and contextual factors that influence trauma healing, and 2) explore the nature of healing. Our grounded theory analysis revealed that social context had powerful influences over both barriers and facilitators. Analysis of the nature of healing revealed three main healing objectives: reconnecting with self, others, and the world. This information can be utilized by clinicians to create safer, more empowering healing spaces for survivors. Future research is needed to further expand upon the themes identified in this analysis, with the goal to reevaluate existing trauma recovery measures to ensure that trauma recovery is being captured through a holistic, survivor-centered lens.

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Author – Grace Lees

Affiliations – University of Michigan

Title – Art as a Voice to End Gender Based Violence

Abstract – As a survivor of sexual assault and domestic violence much of my reclaiming and recovery process has centered around art. I believe that visual art has the power to shift perspectives unlike other mediums. The viewer is forced to filter their perception of the piece through their own reality – interpreting creative ambiguity requires self reflection. I would love to create a poster that showcases historic and contemporary works through feminist lenses, as well as feature the work of UofM students. The themes I would focus on would be reclaiming sexuality and the female form, feminist social media and protest art, and the cathartic narratives of artists in relation to gender based violence.

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Author – Lisbeth Iglesias-Rios

Affiliations – School of Public Health, University of Michigan

Title – Mental health, violence and psychological coercion among female and male trafficking survivors in the Greater Mekong Sub-region

Abstract – Background: Human trafficking is a pervasive global problem that involves psychological abuse, control, and violence. We assessed the sex-specific associations between types of violence (sexual, physical, or both) and psychological coercion and the risk of mental illness among trafficking survivors in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 1,015 trafficked males, females, youth and children who received post-trafficking assistance services in Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam and were exploited in various labor sectors. We assessed anxiety and depression with the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist and post-traumatic stress disorder with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. We used validated questions from the World Health Organization International Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence to measure physical and sexual violence. Sex-specific modified Poisson regression models were conducted to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between violence, threats and mental health conditions (anxiety, depression and PTSD). Findings: We found that for females, experiencing both physical and sexual violence was a strong predictor of symptoms of anxiety (PR= 2.08; 95% CI: 1.64-2.64), PTSD (PR= 1.55; 95% CI: 1.37-1.74), and depression (PR= 1.57; 95% CI: 1.33-1.85). In contrast, physical violence with threats made with weapons was strongly associated with symptoms of PTSD among males (PR= 1.59; 95% CI: 1.05-2.42). Psychological abuse in the form of coercion (personal and both, personal and family threats) during the trafficking experience was consistently and strongly associated with anxiety, depression, and PTSD in both females and males. Conclusions: For females, experiencing both, physical and sexual violence was a strong predictor of symptoms of anxiety, PTSD, and depression. In contrast, physical violence with threats made with weapons was strongly associated with symptoms of PTSD among males. Policy makers and stake holders need to take into account the complex and severe effects that human trafficking inflicts on the mental health of survivors of trafficking.

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Author – Samantha Campbell

Affiliations – Alliance for Sexual Assault Prevention

Title – Survivor Space: A Community Building Advocacy Project

Abstract – My poster will reflect the community building and advocacy work the Alliance for Sexual Assault Prevention (ASAP) at Eastern Michigan University has done over the past school year to demonstrate the ways in which my student organization has focused on innovating new ways to address sexual violence response and prevention. We understand and strive to be accessible to older adults, disabled people, the LGBT+ community, non-white and non-womxn-identified victims and survivors. We also recognize the nuances of abuse and trauma, survivors, victims, and perpetrators as well as the intersecting identities and circumstances that enabled the abuse we (as survivors/victims) experienced and/or perpetuated in order to address sexual violence and the non-linear nature of healing in a holistic manner. In my presentation, I will explain the need for a strengths-based approach to the anti-sexual violence movement by outlining how ASAP trains our members and community support group facilitators to work with survivors and victims of sexual violence through this philosophy.

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Author – Courtney Burns

Affiliations – School of Nursing, University of Michigan

Title – Trauma Recovery in Irish and American Women: A Story of Courage and Strength

Abstract – Little research has focused on the trauma healing processes of survivors of gender-based violence (GBV) worldwide. Even less research has utilized cross-cultural comparison to understand how cultural differences impact survivors’ healing goals, creating a gap in understanding how to provide adequate, culturally sensitive trauma-informed care to survivors.  The purpose of this study was to 1) understand the barriers, facilitators, and healing goals related to GBV recovery in Irish and American women and 2) cross-culturally compare the trauma recovery processes of these samples to reveal culturally relevant nuances to survivors’ healing journeys.  To gather healing trajectory data, we utilized the Clinical Ethnographic Narrative Interview with 21 American and 12 Irish female survivors who self-identified as having experienced GBV.  Analytic ethnography was used to examine and compare the trauma recovery process, focusing on the definitions and meanings of healing experiences.  Our analysis revealed shared facilitators of trauma healing included professional support, sense of belonging, and financial independence. Barriers to healing included shame, internalized sexual violence norms, and fear of judgment. Analysis of the nature of healing revealed three main healing objectives: reconnecting with self, reconnecting with others, and reconnecting with the world. A key component of the healing dynamic in the Irish sample was survivors’ motherly responsibilities and feelings of unconditional devotion to her children. Conversely, the American sample appeared more focused on personal growth and resolving feelings of weakness.  This information can be utilized to create culturally sensitive, more productive healing spaces for survivors.

Understanding perpetration

Authors – Penny N. Warmanen, Meredith L., Philyaw-Kotov, Quyen M. Ngo, Erin E. Bonar, Maureen A. Walton, Katherine R. Bucholz, Laura M. Dent, and Yasamin Kusunoki

Affiliations – University of Michigan

Title – Sexual Violence Perpetration among Emerging Adults: Event-Based Findings from a National Sample

Abstract – Background: Sexual violence (SV) is a significant public health concern with substantial consequences. Among US adults, 19.3% of females and 1.7% of males experience rape, and 43.9% of females and 23.4% experience other types of SV. Risk of SV perpetration onsent increases during adolescence, and most SV survivors are first victimized before age 25. Data: A national sample of 18-25 year olds was recruited via social media to complete an anonymous, online questionnaire about SV perpetration. Survey items inquired about participants’ own history of perpetrating SV. Participants also received event-specific questions, including incident characteristics (e.g., location, relationship to victim), substance use within two hours, and perpetration movies and tactics used. Results: Among the 3,853 respondents who completed the survey, 9% reported an intentional perpetration and 8% reported an unintentional perpetration. Other than gender, there were few significant sociodemographic differences between perpetrators and non-perpetrators. For both perpetration types, the perpetration was often a current or former committed partner and the event often occurred in an indoor private location. Substance use by both perpetration and survivor was more common in intentional perpetrations whereas not using any substance by the perpetrator was more common in unintentional perpetrations. There were common motives for intentional and unintentional perpetrations, including “I wanted to have sex, “[initials] and I were dating, hooking up, or in a committed relationship,” and “[initials] touched me.” Conclusion: By illuminating intervention points in the sequence of events, our results can inform the development of tailored perpetrator-focused programs.

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Author – Erin Bonar

Affiliations – Institute for Healthcare Policy & Innovation, University of Michigan

Title – Relationships between Binge Drinking And Other Risk Factors with Stealthing Perpetration and Victimization among Emerging Adults

Abstract – Purpose: “Stealthing” is a form of sexual violence that occurs when a sexual partner removes a condom during penetration without the knowledge of the receptive partner. We examined substance use correlates of stealthing perpetration (SP) and victimization (SV) among a national sample of emerging adults. Methods: Participants comprised 2,545 18-25 year-olds (M age=20.8) surveyed online: 48% female; 61.6% Caucasian and 38.4% Minority; 66.5% identified as heterosexual; and 81.9% had at least some college education. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between demographics, past-year frequency of binge drinking, marijuana use, illicit drug use, and prescription drug misuse, with SP by men and SV occurring among men and women, separately. Results: SP since age 16 was reported by 6% of men; 5% of men and 19% of women reported SV since age 16. In adjusted analyses including age, race, education status, and sexual orientation along with the four substance use variables, significant correlates of male SP were: Caucasian race (OR=0.53), binge drinking (OR=1.34), marijuana use (OR=1.35), and prescription drug misuse (OR=1.43). Correlates of male SV were: non-heterosexual orientation (OR=0.26) and binge drinking (OR=1.38). Correlates of female SV were: older age (OR=1.12), Caucasian race (OR=0.69), binge drinking (OR=1.29), and marijuana use (OR=1.28).  Conclusions: Correlates of stealthing varied somewhat based on gender and perpetration versus victimization. Binge drinking appears to be a common correlate of both SV and SP, which is consistent with established literature linking alcohol to sexual aggression as well as alcohol use as a risk factor for sexual assault.

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Author – Amira Malik

Affiliations – Injury Prevention Center, University of Michigan

Title – Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration and Victimization Described by Men in Family Medicine Settings

Abstract – Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly prevalent in the U.S. with 1 in 4 men reporting lifetime victimization from IP rape, physical violence, or stalking, and nearly 1 in 2 men reporting lifetime victimization from IP emotional abuse. Nearly 1 in 5 men report physical IPV perpetration. Few clinical studies assess IPV among men in primary care settings. The purpose of this study is to understand men’s accounts of talking about, changing, perceived causation for, and treatment received for IPV. Methods: The interview study sample was purposefully gathered from surveys of men in waiting rooms of 2 U-M family medicine outpatient centers. Men who disclosed IPV and provided contact information on the survey received audio-recorded, phone-based individual semi-structured interviews conducted September 2015 – August 2016 with open-ended questions describing their IPV incident, if behavior is problematic or changing, speaking to health care providers about or treatment for IPV. We used content analysis to identify themes from men’s accounts of their IPV. Starting in fall 2016 we created codes, themes, and a conceptual model, and analyses are still on-going. Results: We interviewed 20 men and created transcripts from audio-recordings. Preliminary codes of the first 2 transcripts suggest 5 main themes: getting to know partner, conflict with partner, resolving conflict with partner, reduced conflict with partner, and no conflict with partner. We incorporated these themes conceptually in a model of a pathway to non-violent behavior. Conclusions: Men in family medicine settings are willing to discuss IPV perpetration and victimization with friends, family and health care providers. Men discuss their IPV as being in various stages of change.

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Author – Kelsey Bees

Affiliations – Michigan State University

Title – Examining the Likelihood of Relapse among Offenders Recovering from Substance Abuse Disorder

Abstract – The stresses of substance abuse and the demands of child care can create a volatile environment in which neglect or physical abuse can occur (Wells, 2006).  Many parents who have substance use issues often end up being a part of Child Welfare Services, and the criminal justice system.  With this in mind, understanding relapse among recovering parental drug users can help identify and prevent relapse behaviors. This study examines the predictive validity of a well-known psychological relapse prevention assessment, the Advance Warning of Relapse (AWARE), among sobriety mandated drug court attendees from a mid-sized Midwestern court. AWARE assessments were collected to identify relapse warning signs and the predicted likelihood of relapse among offenders. We hypothesize that scores on the AWARE assessment will effectively predict positive drug testing outcomes. Implications for future research will be discussed.

Willingness to learn

Author – Kendal Rosalik

Affiliations – Students Advocating for Violence Education, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Michigan State University

Title – Student Perspectives of Sexual Violence Education at MSUCOM

Abstract -While sexual violence is a common healthcare concern, it is inconsistently presented during undergraduate medical education. Studies suggest such instruction may influence attitudes and behaviors of future physicians. At the Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine (MSUCOM), there is growing interest in developing sexual violence education. To help call attention to these issues, we created Students Advocating for Violence Education (SAVE), an informal task force of first through fourth year students. SAVE aspires to work with administration to help guide changes students would like to see in regards to sexual violence education, student understanding of Title IX and College resources, and College policy. SAVE collected student input, including comments on feeling prepared to interact with survivors of sexual violence, understanding of Title IX, and knowledge of University policy. This preliminary survey indicates the overwhelming support within the student body for enhancing this education within MSUCOM. Future research, if possible, will be directed toward observing change that results from our advocacy and analyzing the effectiveness of those changes within the curriculum and educational culture. Further study is needed within our institution, the osteopathic profession, and within undergraduate medical education programs to fully evaluate educational needs and student perceptions.

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Author – Seth Klapman

Affiliations – University of Michigan Medical School

Title – SafeMD: Medical Students Developing a Sexual Assault Awareness and  Education Curriculum Targeted To Medical Professionals

Abstract – Purpose: Innovations in sexual assault education for medical students are vital in improving awareness, advocacy, and care for survivors. SafeMD is a medical student-driven initiative working to improve curricular, co-curricular, and extracurricular sexual assault education. Background: Sexual assault is a pervasive issue that necessitates effective curricula to provide medical professionals with tools to prevent sexual assault in their communities and provide high-quality healthcare to survivors. Medical students receiving training in intimate partner violence (IPV) are more likely to screen for IPV as clinicians. However, the methods and student engagement in IPV curricula vary greatly between institutions. Methods: In fall 2015, students at the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) founded SafeMD, an organization dedicated to providing leadership, advocacy, and programming on sexual assault.  Results: In its first two years, with support from the UMMS Administration and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SafeMD presented to all incoming M1s at orientation; instituted “Allyhood Training”, a yearly extracurricular seminar series (topics include community resources, responding as a provider, trauma-informed physical exams, and legal considerations); helped redesign the required IPV curriculum using results from a student needs assessment, and began creating an interprofessional network focused on providing education on sexual assault to graduate schools. Discussion: SafeMD provides an excellent model for other institutions to initiate similar programs dedicated to educating future health professionals on sexual assault in order to better serve patients and communities. The program’s success highlights the importance of partnerships between students, medical school administration, faculty, and departments to achieve change.

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Author – Miriam Gleckman-Krut

Affiliations – LSA Department of Sociology, University of Michigan

Title – Other People’s Problem: How White College Students Narrate Sexual Misconduct on Campus

Abstract – How do white sophomore students understand sexual violence among their peers? Methods: This study utilizes interview data collected from twelve University of Michigan students in 2016. Results: Sociologists have long since documented what I call the “me exemption” – individuals exempt themselves the possibility of experiencing sexual discrimination and victimhood. In this study, I argue that respondents  extend this exemption to people like themselves. Not only do individuals exclude themselves as possible victims, they encounter difficulty narrating their close friends as possible victims. These data indicates a similar trend among potential perpetrators. People are unlikely to label their close friends as “assailants” or their actions as “violent.” They are also unlikely to conceive of their partners as possible perpetrators Significance: This paper contributes both a case and theory to the legal consciousness and organizational change literature within sociology. It also extends prior research on sexual violence as a structural problem — in this case one that serves to protect white men’s ability to commit sexual violence and access to high education.

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Author – Lindsay Cannon

Affiliations – School of Nursing, University of Michigan

Title – Nursing Students’ Experiences with Trauma-Informed Care Education and Re-Traumatization in Classroom, Simulation, and Clinical Settings: Results from a Online Survey

Abstract – Background: Nurses play a vital role in providing care to vulnerable populations, many of which have experienced trauma. Trauma has profound effects on the health of individuals across the lifecourse and is associated with myriad health implications, including chronic disease, increased morbidity, and premature mortality. To provide cutting edge care, nursing needs to integrate trauma-informed care (TIC) principles throughout the curriculum. However, doing so risks exposing students to vicarious trauma or re-traumatization. Despite best practices for teaching TIC within other disciplines, there are no best practices for nursing. Methods: Ninety-nine undergraduate and graduate nursing students completed an online survey. Participants were asked about their perceptions of how TIC is currently taught and could be better integrated into the nursing curriculum. Additionally, participants were asked about experiences with re-traumatization. Descriptive statistics were computed and thematic analysis was conducted. Results: Although 99% of students report that learning about TIC is important, less than half feel the curriculum prepares them to provide TIC. Only 30% of students report that they feel confident in their ability to provide TIC. 64% of students reported a traumatic experience in their lifetime. Of these students, 64% reported that the curriculum is sensitive to their experiences. Students recommended multiple modalities for teaching about TIC and stressed the importance of debriefing in a sensitive manner to resist re-traumatization. Conclusions: Although nursing students understand its importance, few feel prepared to provide TIC. A significant proportion of nursing students report traumatic experiences, which has implications for their learning and clinical care.

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Author – Megan Harris

Affiliations – School of Nursing, University of Michigan

Title – Need for Integration of Trauma-Informed Care Principles in Nursing Education: Results from Semi-Structured Interviews with Faculty, Preceptors, and Lecturers

Abstract – Background: Nurses provide care to vulnerable populations, many of which have experienced adverse childhood events (ACEs). Approximately two-thirds of adults reported at least one ACE and over 20 percent reported three or more ACEs. ACEs have a profound, cumulative effect on the health and development of individuals, therefore impacting the health of society. To provide cutting edge leadership and care, trauma-informed care (TIC) concepts need to be integrated throughout nursing curriculums. However, doing so exposes students to vicarious trauma or re-traumatization. Although other professions have developed best practices for their students, there are no best practices for nursing. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen nursing faculty, lecturers, and clinical preceptors. Participants were asked about their understanding of and experiences with TIC, perceptions of how TIC is currently taught within nursing, and nursing faculty’s role in preparing nursing students to provide TIC. Additionally, participants were asked about best practices for resisting re-traumatization in nursing students. Thematic analysis was conducted using the constant comparative method. Results: Analysis is currently in progress. Preliminary themes indicate a need for further integration of TIC and educational practices to resist re-traumatization within the nursing curriculum. Although participants expressed that TIC needs to be “woven”  throughout the nursing curriculum at all levels (i.e., undergraduate, DNP, PhD), multiple modalities and methods for disseminating this material were proposed.  Conclusion: Education about TIC is vital to the preparation and well-being of nursing students. Further research into trauma-informed educational models is necessary to advance nursing care of vulnerable populations.