1999 Exam 4

1. Which of these would you least expect to find on the inside of an HIV virus particle
a. protease
b. integrase
c. reverse transcriptase
d. gp120
e. RNA

2. In the State of Michigan
a. the names of persons with AIDS must be reported to the state health department
b. the names of persons who test positive for HIV (if known) must be reported to the state health department
c. c. sex between consenting homosexual adults is legal
d. injection drug users can exchange used needles for sterile ones at state clinics and most hospitals
e. convicted prostitutes, even those suspected of spreading HIV infection, can refuse to be tested for HIV

3. Which of the following is a scientist associated with the AIDS crisis?
a. Harvey Milk
b. Cleve Jones
c. Larry Kramer
d. Gaetan Dugas
e. Luc Montagnier

4. The phrase “And the Band Played On” is taken from
a. an old song
b. a movie starring Judy Garland
c. a poem by the “beat” poet Alan Ginsburg
d. a US government report
e. the title of a popular television show from the 1970’s

5. Among all the HIV -infected persons in the United States, the most common route of infection was
a. homosexual sex
b. injection drug use
c. blood transfusion
d. transplacental transfer
e. clotting factor for hemophiliacs

6. The term “Herd Immunity” implies that
a. if the probability that a given contact between two individuals will result in transmission can be reduced enough, an epidemic will not be self-sustaining
b. if the animal source of a viral or bacterial epidemic can be eliminated, then that epidemic will die out after two or three generations
c. large numbers of individuals need to become infected in order for an epidemic to begin in the first place
d. infectious diseases are rarely transmitted among animals that live in densely packed herds or flocks
e. viral diseases can be transmitted from animals to humans, but not from humans to animals

7. If a nurse is jabbed with a needle that had been used on an HIV-infected person, the probability that he or she will become HIV positive from that event is
a. nearly 100%
b. about 50%
c. less than 1%
d. about 1 in 5,960
e. about 1 in 450,000

8. Use of a latex condom during intercourse
a. increases the probability of HIV transmission
b. has no effect on the probability of transmitting HIV
c. reduces the probability of HIV transmission by about 10%
d. reduces the probability of HIV transmission by about 90%
e. eliminates the possibility of HIV transmission

9. Prophylaxis is a general term for a treatment or set of treatments that will
a. prevent an infectious disease from becoming a sexually transmitted disease
b. prevent a disease or condition
c. cure a disease or condition
d. inadvertently cause the death of a patient

10. Which of these practices is most likely to lead to transmission of HIV? (NOTE: All of them can lead to transmission!)
a. receptive vaginal intercourse
b. receptive anal intercourse
c. receptive oral intercourse
d. insertive vaginal intercourse
e. insertive anal intercourse

11. HIV-2 differs from HIV-1 in a number of properties. Among these is the fact that
a. HIV-2 is more common in the US than HIV-1
b. HIV-2 is transmitted by heterosexual vaginal intercourse more easily than HIV-1
c. HIV-2 appears to have originated in birds whereas HIV-1 appears to have originated in chimpanzees
d. Persons infected with HIV-2 progress to AIDS more slowly than persons infected by HIV-1
e. HIV-2 infections can be cured but HIV-1 infections cannot

12. In most HIV infected adults, the asymptomatic stage usually lasts for
a. days
b. weeks
c. years
d. decades
e. indefinitely (most HIV infected adults never shows symptoms)

13. When you go for an HIV test and an ELISA assay is performed, the test is looking for the presence of
a. HIV viral particles in your blood
b. HIV-derived nucleic acid (RNA) in your blood
c. HIV antigens in your blood
d. HIV-specific DNA inserted into the chromosomes of your T cells in the lymph nodes
e. HIV-specific antibodies in your blood

14. An HIV infected adult is non-infectious (incapable of transmitting the virus by sexual intercourse)
a. during the primary stage of infection, but before seroconversion
b. during the latent period (asymptomatic stage)
c. during early end-stage (when expressing the AIDS Related Complex or ARC)
d. during full blown AIDS (end-stage HIV disease)
e. never. Such a person is always able to transmit the disease

15. The symptoms of the first stage of HIV disease, occurring immediately after infection, most resemble the symptoms of
a. cancer, especially sarcoma
b. pneumonia
c. dementia
d. flu or mononucleosis
e. tuberculosis

16. Which of these would detect an HIV infection the soonest after it occurred
a. A physical examination by a doctor with training and experience in recognizing the clinical manifestations of AIDS
b. A blood test using an ELISA assay
c. A blood test using a Western Blot assay
d. An antibody test using the p24 antigen
e. a PCR analysis for viral load

17. “Thrush” is one of the earliest clinical manifestations of AIDS. What is thrush?
a. a fungal infection of the mouth and throat
b. a cancer that shows itself as purple patches on the skin
c. a profound weight loss coupled with “night sweats”
d. a dementia that resembles Alzheimer’s disease

18. All five of the following activities were strongly correlated with a high incidence of AIDS in the early studies. Which one is actually the most likely to transmit HIV from an infected to a non-infected person?
a. “fisting”
b. “rimming”
c. oral sex
d. use of “poppers”
e. injection drug use

19. Treatment of HIV-infected pregnant women with AZT (zidovudine) reduces the probability of transmitting HIV to the child by
a. an insignificant amount
b. about 10% overall, but greater than 90% for the most damaging mutants of HIV
c. about a third
d. about 75% overall, but an insignificant amount for the most damaging mutants of HIV
e. about 75%, but with a substantial (about 15%) risk of causing birth defects.

20. The co-receptor for HIV infection of macrophages (the CCR5 or CKR5 protein) was discovered because
a. some people infected with HIV were cured of the infection
b. some people infected with HIV went directly from the primary infection to end-stage disease (full-blown AIDS) with virtually no asymptomatic stage
c. some people failed to become infected with HIV despite very many high-risk exposures
d. some people with high levels of copper, zinc, or vitamin C in their bloodstream seemed to progress to full-blown AIDS very slowly
e. people who lack CCR5 or CKR5 protein are the most likely to develop Kaposi’s Sarcoma as a result of their HIV infection

21. The use of “triple-drug therapy” is to HIV disease as
a. the use of streptomycin is to tuberculosis
b. the use of penicillin is to syphilis
c. the use of vaccination is to smallpox
d. the use of bleeding is to tuberculosis
e. the use of mercury rubs is to syphilis

22. AIDS has been a recognized syndrome or disease for about the past
a. 20 years
b. 40 years
c. 60 years
d. 80 years
e. 100 years

23. Which of these “bodily fluids” is probably the safest in terms of transmission of HIV
a. blood
b. semen
c. saliva
d. vaginal secretions
e. breast milk

24. Which of the following is most like “Typhoid Mary?”
a. Harvey Milk
b. Cleve Jones
c. Larry Kramer
d. Gaetan Dugas
e. Luc Montagnier

25. Who was Selma Dritz?
a. A Danish physician who worked in Africa and became one of the first Europeans to die of AIDS
b. A co-worker of Robert Gallo and the one who actually developed the procedure for growing retroviruses in culture
c. A public health worker for the city of San Francisco
d. A technician at the CDC who noticed an excessive number of unexplained orders for pentamidine (used to treat pneumocystis pneumonia)
e. The woman who became mayor of San Francisco when George Moscone was assassinated