2001 Exam 1

1. “Typhoid Mary’s” status as a healthy carrier of typhoid fever was established by
a. bacteriological tests performed by the New York City Dept. of Health Laboratories
b. a panel of physicians appointed by the New York City Dept. of Health
c. a panel of physicians appointed by a New York State court
d. a panel of physicians appointed by a federal court
e. perigradular fraglitation of her gall bladder

2. Of the total number of cases of typhoid fever in New York City in 1906-1907, what fraction were thought to have been caused by “Typhoid Mary?”
a. fewer than 1%
b. 12-15%
c. about two thirds
d. 100%
e. all but one case

3. A bacterium is said to be a human pathogen
a. it grows well inside humans
b. it is recognized by the immune response
c. it can grow using blood or plasma as its sole source of food
d. it can be transmitted from one human to another
e. it makes humans sick

4. Among the Fore tribes of New Guinea, the phrase: “I eat you” was
a. a serious threat leading to violence
b. a ritualized threat that actually prevented violence
c. a greeting
d. a joke
e. a corruption of the English “I greet you”

5. The reason that Mr. George Thompson hired George Soper was
a. Mr. Thompson had a long-standing interest in Public Health
b. Mr. Thompson needed a physician to treat his family
c. Mr. Thompson needed a political ally in his attempt to become the head of the New York City Board of Health
d. Mr. Thompson wanted to transport bibles and other missionary supplies from Australia to the Fore villages in Papua New Guinea
e. Mr. Thompson wanted to be able to rent out his summer cottage

6. As of 1907 (the time of Typhoid Mary), Public Health Boards
a. had been around since colonial times
b. were still a new concept
c. derived their powers from the “War Powers Act.”
d. were still illegal in most states

7. The woman who came to be known as “Typhoid Mary”
a. could read and write
b. could drive a car
c. was significantly overweight
d. had difficulty speaking English
e. became convinced of her status as a healthy carrier sometime during 1910, the year she was released from her first imprisonment

8. Once a bacterium had been taken up into a phagocyte and enclosed in a vessicle, it is likely that
a. it is then coated with antibodies to target it for destruction
b. it is digested by digestive enzymes poured into the vessicle from a lysozome
c. it fuses with the cell membrane of the phagocyte and kills it
d. it dies because of the high temperature inside the phagocyte
e. it secretes a white substance that we know as “pus.”

9. The first real hints about the cause of kuru came from a microscopic analysis of
a. brains
b. blood
c. sputum
d. lymph nodes
e. urine and feces

10. Which of these was NOT a recommended treatment for healthy carriers of typhoid fever at the time “Typhoid Mary” was first identified?
a. laxatives
b. diuretics
c. vaccinations
d. surgery

11. The most effective way to identify dangerous carriers of typhoid fever was
a. following all reported typhoid fever cases until the stools of the patient were free of typhoid bacilli
b. requiring all food handlers to have a certificate of helath from a private or public physician
c. epidemiological tracking of outbreaks to suspected sources
d. routine testing of the water in all private wells

12. At the time of Typhoid Mary’s capture and transfer to confinement, the news coverage in the major New York newspapers could best be described as
a. independent and authoritative
b. government-controlled
c. erudite and literary
d. tabloid and sensational
e. prudish

13. When did bacteria appear on earth?
a. very soon after humans evolved
b. very soon after warm-blooded animals evolved
c. about the same time as the dinosaurs
d. only after human populations gathered in large groups (i.e. cities)
e. before all other forms of life

14. Scrapie is a disease of
a. humans
b, cows
c. sheep
d. mink
e. squirrels

15. The belief that “miasmas” were the cause of most disease, especially epidemic disease, led the public to support
a. pasteurization of milk
b. public vaccination programs
c. construction of water filtration plants
d. street cleaning and garbage collection
e. construction of quarantine hospitals

16. The untested legal principle that Mary Mallon’s first court hearing established was that
a. a sick person could be quarantined against her/his will
b. a healthy person could be considered sick if she/he carried typhoid germs
c. women were subject to the quarantine laws, not just men
d. the fifth-amendment protection against self-incrimination was waived in cases of infectious disease

17. An Irish person born and reared in Ireland in the years around 1880-1900 would be most likely to harbor ill will toward
a. the French
b. the Germans
c. the Americans
d. the English
e. the Italians

18. A normal, healthy human being
a. carries no bacteria at all (is sterile from a bacteriological point of view)
b. carries some bacteria, but only non-pathogenic ones
c. carries some bacteria, bot only pathogenic ones
d. carries a mix of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria and would be sicker of they were all removed
e. carries a mix of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria and would be even healthier if they were all removed

19. The one group who seemed NOT to develop kuru (or not very often) was
a. adult married women
b. adult unmarried women
c. adult males
d. young boys
e. young girls

20. In the present time, a person would be called a “Typhoid Mary” because
a. he has had typhoid fever
b. he has been persecuted by the authorities unjustly (or to an unreasonable extent)
c. he brings bad luck with him
d. he is a working-class person who stands up for his rights against those who claim to be better educated
e. he is Irish and a member of a labor union

21. Most bacteria
a. cause disease
b. can live in or on humans
c. are too small to be seen without a microscope
d. are multicellular organisms
e. can grow in boiling acid for extended times

22. Which of these are researchers able to do with high efficiency:
a. give goats typhoid fever by injecting them with material from infected humans
b. give goats kuru by injecting them with material from infected humans
c. give goats scrapie by injecting them with material from infected sheep
d. give humans scrapie by injecting them with material from infected sheep
e. give humans kuru by injecting them with material from infected sheep