2001 Exam 3

(NOTE: No single exam had more than 22 questions. But a total of 30 were used in the 4 different forms.)
1. The pilot project that eventually became “The Tuskeegee Study” was originally intended to
a) see if treatment of syphilis in the rural, African American population of the deep South was possible or practical
b) see if the symptoms of syphilis differed depending on the race of the victim
c) optimize the dosage and treatment regimens for African Americans rather than merely using dosages developed from European studies
d) guarantee that the rural, African American population of the deep South would remain weakened by syphilis to a degree that it would be unlikely to rise from poverty
e) introduce syphilis into the rural, African American population of the deep South

2. The death of 2 adolescents (and severe disability of another) from CJD in Britain within one year “sounded alarm bells” because
a) their youth raised the “human interest” element in press stories
b) CJD is extremely rare in young people
c) a direct link could be made in each case to the infected cow responsible
d) all three were from rich, powerfully-connected families
e) they were all in the same hospital at the same time

3. About a century ago, as World War I was about to begin,
a) Syphilis was virtually unknown in the US
b) Syphilis was well-established in the US but much less frequent than today
c) Syphilis was about as common in the US as it is today
d) Syphilis was somewhat more common in the US than it is today (about 5-10 fold more common)
e) Syphilis was much more common in the US than it is today (more than 50 fold)

4. The disease(s) that did the most damage to the native peoples in the Americas as a result of the Columbian Exchange was (were)
a) Smallpox and measles
b) Syphilis and gonorrhea
c) The common cold
d) Tuberculosis
e) Bubonic and pneumonic plague

5. Once a viral infection becomes established in a human, physicians have trouble treating it because
a) It is not inhibited by antibiotics that inhibit bacteria
b) It has a nearly impermeable protein shell
c) The membrane is studded with proteins that can interact with proteins in or on human cells
d) Circular DNA molecules are quite resistant to degradation
e) They are too small to be detected even with a standard microscope

6. Malaria is transmitted between humans by
a) The bite of a tick
b) The bite of a mosquito
c) Coughing and sneezing
d) Contaminated water
e) Close (usually sexual) contact between individuals

7. The greatest risk for an American outbreak of mad cow disease is probably
a) from cattle imported from Britain before 1990
b) from cattle originating in Britain and imported through a third country (especially Canada and Mexico) up to the present time
c) from a spontaneous occurrence of an American strain of BSE in beef cattle
d) from transmission of scrapie from sheep to beef to humans
e) from transmission from imported beef products used in pet food to cats and then to humans

8. In the US, about 50% of the cases of syphilis today occur in 31 counties. Where are most of these counties located?
a) In and around the port cities of the East, West, and Gulf Coasts
b) In the industrialized Northern and Mid-Western cities
c) In California and the other states that border Mexico
d) In the rural South
e) In states with high populations of immigrants from Asia and Africa

9. The strongest evidence against a New World origin for syphilis and its arrival in the Old World with Columbus’ return comes from
a) Syphilitic bones in Egyptian mummies
b) Syphilitic bones in an Irish cemetery
c) Medical records from China and India
d) The descriptions of the deaths of some early Christian saints
e) The early writings of Hippocrates and other Greek physicians

10. Every virus has a capsid which is
a) A shell made of protein
b) An envelope made of membrane
c) A nucleic acid
d) A protein on the outer surface of a virus
e) A specific antibody that recognizes a specific viral protein

11. The primary goal of the “Social Hygiene Movement” of the 1920’s and ’30’s was

a) water filtration, garbage collection, and meat inspection
b) racial purity through segregation, sterilization, and selective breeding
c) elimination of syphilis through prevention, education, treatment, and contact
d) the end of open immigration into the US, especially from Asia
e) a reintroduction of Puritanical values in speech, dress, and behavior

12. The term “venereal” (as in venereal disease) comes from
a) the Latin “venerit” (“it will come”)
b) the belief that syphilis (and gonorrhea) were diseases of venous blood, as opposed to arterial blood
c) the belief that such diseases were common in holy (“venerable”) men like monks and religious pilgrims
d) the belief that the early symptoms were superficial, like a veneer
e) the name of Venus, the Roman goddess of love

13. Measles was so much more deadly in 16th century Mexico than in 16th century Spain because
a) There are genetic differences between native the peoples of Central America and the 16th century population of Spain
b) The occupation of Spain by the Moors had brought a partially effective treatment (mercury) to Spain
c) Endemic disease results in a partial immunity and a restriction of the disease to children, but naïve populations have no such immunity
d) A generally poorer nutritional standard prevailed in Mexico, due largely to the lack of large animals capable of pulling plows for agriculture
e) The wetter climate in Central America is more conducive to the spread of measles than the dryer climate of Spain

14. Which of the following is NOT used by any known virus as part of its genetic code
a) Double-stranded DNA
b) Double-stranded RNA
c) Single-stranded DNA
d) Single-stranded RNA
e) Protein

15. Malaria is caused by infection with an organism called
a) Treponema
b) Plasmodium
c) Yersinia
d) PrP
e) PrM

16. The key to the (false) assumption that mad cow disease cannot transmit to humans was that
a) people had eaten scrapie infected sheep for centuries
b) scrapie and mad cow were of totally different etiology, one caused by a virus and one by a viroid (“virino”)
c) mad cow could be transmitted to mice but scrapie could not
d) scrapie could be transmitted to mice but mad cow could not
e) scrapie could pass from sheep to sheep within a flock, but mad cow could not pass from cow to cow within a herd

17. The Wassermann Test asks the question
a) Do you have syphilis germs in your blood
b) Do you have syphilis-specific antibodies in your blood
c) Do you have syphilis-specific complement in your blood
d) Are the syphilis germs in you infectious or non-infectious
e) Have you been cured of syphilis

18. Which of these is true of dinosaurs in North America?
a) There never were any dinosaurs in the “New World;” they were restricted to the “Old World”
b) They existed but died out long before humans crossed into the Americas via Alaska
c) They died out just before humans crossed into Alaska, and their die-out made the continent “safe” for human population
d) They died out shortly after the native peoples of North America developed an effective spear-point (the so-called “Clovis Point”)
e) They died out as a result of the Columbian Exchange, even though the European explorers never actually saw a dinosaur in the Americas

19. Which of these is NOT caused by a virus
a) Herpes
b) Influenza
d) Lyme Disease
e) The common cold

20. The cyclical occurrence of fever and chills during an episode of malaria is associated with
a) Infection and replication of the parasite in hepatic (liver) cells
b) Sequestering of infected cells in body tissues
c) Sexual reproduction of the parasite
d) Rupture of infected red blood cells
e) Production of huge numbers of phagocytes (white blood cells)

21. The term “prophylaxis” (or “prophylactic”) necessarily includes the concept of
a) prevention
b) treatment
c) cure
d) latex condoms
e) venereal disease

22. After the discovery that penicillin is 100% effective in curing syphilis
a) The Tuskeegee Study stopped and all participants were treated with penicillin
b) the Tuskeegee Study stopped and the participants were left alone to find treatment (or not) on their own
c) The Tuskeegee Study continues with no treatment offered but with dwindling numbers as participants discovered penicillin and sought treatment on their own
d) The Tuskeegee Study continued with no treatment offered and with treatment denied to those who sought it
e) The Tuskeegee Study became an issue of intense controversy that remained unresolved for ten years

23. Patricia Merz (who discovered Scrapie Associated Fibrils, SAF) was washing dished at home when a thought came to her that made her throw up her dinner. What was that thought?
a) Scrapie and mad cow disease might be the same disease
b) Mad cow might be transmissible to humans
c) She may have infected herself with mad cow prions
d) SAF might be the actual causative agent of scrapie
e) She had failed to use gloves at work that day, just as she had failed to use gloves while washing dishes that day

24. Who created the first vaccine
a) Edward Jenner
b) Robert Koch
c) Louis Pasteur
d) Ziehl and Neelson
e) Calmette and Guerin

25. The first vaccinations were designed to protect against which disease?
a) Measles
b) Rabies
c) Tetanus
d) Smallpox
e) Typhoid Fever

26. An outbreak of an “emerging disease” occurred last October in Uganda. The outbreak killed 150 people within a few weeks and then disappeared. The disease responsible was
a) Ebola
b) Malaria
c) Hepatitis A
d) Dengue Fever
e) Yellow Fever

27. A person is most likely to become infected by hantavirus through
a) A mosquito bite
b) Coughing or sneezing of others
c) The bite of a flea
d) Exposure to fecal material from rodents
e) Contaminated water

29. Which of the following diseases has a fecal-oral route of transmission?
a) Hepatitis A
b) Hepatitis B
c) Hepatitis C
d) Hepatitis D

30. Hepatitis B is particularly dangerous because of the damage it does to the
a) Kidney
b) Lungs
c) Heart
d) Liver
e) Red blood cells