2001 Exam 4

1. The most sensitive test for the presence of HIV in the blood is
(b) Western Blot
(c) PCR
(d) Reverse transcriptase
(e) Protease inhibition

2. Which of these is NOT found in the core of an HIV particle?
(a) RNA
(b) Protease
(c) gp120
(d) Reverse transcriptase
(e) Integrase

3. The cell that secretes antibodies into the blood is a
(a) T-helper cell
(b) T-killer cell
(c) B-cell
(d) Macrophage
(e) Complement cell

4. The number of persons who are currently infected with HIV worldwide is about
(a) 3-4 billion
(b) 300-400 million
(c) 30-40 million
(d) 3-4 million
(e) 900 thousand

5. Many bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases are transmitted efficiently by a fecal-oral route. All of the following can result in fecal-oral transmission. Which is the most direct example and the most guaranteed to provide a fecal-oral route for transmission?
(a) food preparation
(b) fisting
(c) hand washing
(d) rimming
(e) anal intercourse

6. The “phago” part of phagocyte suggests that a phagocyte
(a) secretes things
(b) presents things
(c) binds to things
(d) eats things
(e) is more common in homosexual men than in heterosexual men

7. At the present time, the name of every person with AIDS must be reported to the health authorities
(a) in 2 states, California and New York
(b) in 7 states
(c) in 33 states
(d) in 48 states (all except CA and NY)
(e) in all 50 states

8. Dr. Grethe Rask died of AIDS in the Rigshospitalet just 12 days before the “Feast of the Hearts” in
(a) Zaire (formerly Belgian Congo)
(b) San Francisco
(c) Belgium
(d) New York
(e) Denmark

9. Some cells in your body can ingest a whole bacterium, digest it to small pieces, attach those small pieces to a “self” molecule (also known as MHC) and put the combined “self” plus small piece onto the surface of the cell. This process is called
(a) complement fixation
(b) antibody binding
(c) antigen presentation
(d) T-cell maturation
(e) seroconversion

10. One of the early AIDS-associated terms in the US was “gay cancer.” This initially referred to
(a) Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
(b) Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS)
(c) Toxoplasmosis (Tox)
(d) Cryptosporidium (Crypto)
(e) Hepatitis B (Hep B)

11. T4-helper cells can stimulate cel proliferation (multiplication) of all the following except
(a) B-cells
(b) T-helper cells
(c) T-killer cells
(d) Antigens
(e) Macrophages

12. One of the reasons why it took a while for the study of HIV to move into “high gear” was that there was a lack of people in the US and Europe who were trained to study
(a) retroviruses
(b) infectious diseases
(c) human cells
(d) gay-related sexual practices
(e) opportunistic infections

13. If you go to be tested for HIV, how much blood will the doctor or nurse draw for the test?

This was not a good question. I wanted you to tell me that it is not necessary to draw blood to get tested for HIV infection. Unfortunately, some local institutions (including UM Health Services) still draw blood for an AIDS test. So any answer you gave was counted as correct.

(a) about one drop
(b) about one milliliter (about 20 drops)
(c) about one teaspoonful
(d) about one tablespoonful
(e) none

14. To an immunologist, the term “clonal expansion” refers to
(a) the conversion of a relatively small phagocyte into a much larger macrophage
(b) the doubling of all the immune-response cells that must happen when a developing embryo splits and identical twins are generated
(c) the generation of a large population of cells that produce exactly the same antibody
(d) the cutting of a large gene into little pieces and their reassembly into an absolutely unique new gene that codes for a specific antibody
(e) the stimulation of macrophage division in response to chemical signals secreted by T-helper cells

15. HIV will successfully infect a cell if it has
(a) both CD4 and “self”
(b) both CD4 and CCR5
(c) both CCR5 and CXCR4
(d) both “self” and CCR5
(e) both CD4 and gp120

16. The signal that causes a B cell to divide rapidly and secrete antibodies into the bloodstream (final stage of maturation) is
(a) contact with a macrophage that has an antigen on it which the B cell can also recognize
(b) contact with an antigen that the B cell recognizes
(c) contact with a T-helper cell that recognizes the same antigen as the B cell does
(d) contact with any cell that carries CD4
(e) interaction of an antibody-antigen complex with complement

17. The current AIDS pandemic probably began with a transmission from animals to humans about
(a) 1490-1495
(b) 1340-1350
(c) 1940-1950
(d) 1980-1982
(e) 1990-1992

18. In the days before the antibody (ELISA) test for HIV was developed, another blood test that would have eliminated 70% or more of the HIV infected blood (and about 10-20% of all donated blood, infected or not) was a test for
(a) Hepatitis B
(b) Pneumocystis carinii
(c) Complement fixation
(d) Lentivirus
(e) AIDS-related complex

19. AIDS is most prevalent in
(a) Europe
(b) North America
(c) Asia
(d) Africa
(e) South America

20. The night that Harvey Milk and George Moscone were murdered, Dianne Feinstein became
(a) Secretary of Health and Human Services
(b) The first American woman to die of AIDS
(c) The first person to state publicly that AIDS is transmitted by semen transfer
(d) The Mayor of San Francisco
(e) The first person to see HIV in the electron microscope

21. What does HIV’s protease do?
(a) Put proteins on the surface of HIV
(b) Assemble the proteins into the cone-shaped core
(c) Cut large inactive proteins into smaller pieces that are active
(d) Insert the DNA (copied from RNA) into the chromosomes of the cell
(e) Copy the HIV RNA into DNA for storage

22. In the US, the first four groups where AIDS was a risk factor were called “the 4H’s.” Which of these NOT one of the original 4 H’s?
(a) Homosexuals
(b) Health care workers
(c) Heroin users
(d) Hemophiliacs
(e) Haitians