2001 Final Exam

1. The man who proved that the causative agent of Cholera is waterborne was
(a) George Soper
(b) John Snow
(c) Robert Koch
(d) August Wassermann
(e) Louis Pasteur

2. The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 was unique in that it killed
(a) 20-40 year olds instead of infants and old people
(b) 20-40 year olds in addition to infants and old people
(c) infants and old people instead of 20-40 year olds
(d) infants and 20-40 year olds instead of old people
(e) 20-40 year olds and old people instead of infants

3. What usually kills victims of Bubonic Plague?
(a) secondary bacterial pneumonia
(b) weakening of the immune response
(c) loss of water from the body
(d) starvation due to inability to swallow
(e) septicemia (growth of bacteria in the blood)

4. What usually kills victims of Cholera?
(a) secondary bacterial pneumonia
(b) weakening of the immune response
(c) loss of water from the body
(d) starvation due to inability to swallow
(e) septicemia (growth of bacteria in the blood)

5. Bubonic Plague is caused by a bacterium in the genus Yersinia. Pneumonic Plague is caused by a bacterium in the genus
(a) Salmonella
(b) Mycobacterium
(c) Vibrio
(d) Treponema
(e) Yersinia

6. How many people died (worldwide) during the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919?
(a) about 50,000
(b) about 500,000
(c) about 5,000,000
(d) more than 20,000,000
(e) fewer than 1,000

7. We are certain that Mary Mallon was healthy carrier of Typhoid Fever because
(a) of reports from the New York City Dept. of Health laboratory
(b) epidemiological tracking had established her as the definitive source of the Oyster Bay outbreak
(c) she had a very serious case of Typhoid Fever soon after her identification as a possible carrier
(d) she had a very serious case of Typhoid Fever a few years before the outbreak at Oyster Bay
(e) her symptoms, as described at the time, match perfectly the symptoms of Typhoid Fever as we know them now

8. How many cases of Typhoid Fever was Mary Mallon thought to have caused?
(a) fewer than 5
(b) a few dozen
(c) a few hundred
(d) a few thousand
(e) none

9. If a bacterium makes humans sick, it is called
(a) a symbiont
(b) a saprophyte
(c) a pathogen
(d) an STD
(e) a virus

10. One proof that the practice of cannibalism was well-established in the Fore tribe in New Guinea was
(a) the fact that the events took place in the village center with the whole tribe assembled
(b) the fact that it was widely talked about
(c) the fact that Margaret Mead had written extensively about it during her anthropological studies of these people
(d) the fact that the neighboring tribes feared the Fore more than any other tribe
(e) the fact that there was a common greeting among the Fore that meant “I eat you.”

11. With which disease do we associate the old adage: “One night with Venus, the rest of your life with mercury.”
(a) Tuberculosis
(b) Typhoid Fever
(c) Syphilis
(d) Influenza

12. Mr. George Thompson was afraid that he would never be able to rent his house in Oyster Bay unless the source of a Typhoid Fever outbreak was identified. So he hired
(a) Thomas Parran
(b) Carlton Gajdusek
(c) John Snow
(d) George Soper
(e) Herman Biggs

13. Which of these happened first?
(a) the establishment of the first Board of Health in the US
(b) the first case of AIDS in the US
(c) the first case of Typhoid Fever spread by Mary Mallon
(d) the first use of penicillin to treat syphilis in the US
(e) the Civil War in the US

14. Which of these is true of Mary Mallon (“Typhoid Mary”)
(a) She became convinced of her status as a healthy carrier of Typhoid Fever sometime after 1910.
(b) She had difficulty speaking English (though she could understand it quite well).
(c) She was significantly overweight.
(d) She could drive a car.
(e) She could read and write.

15. Once a bacterium has been taken up into a phagocyte and enclosed within a vesicle, it is likely that
(a) it is then coated with antibodies to target it for destruction
(b) it is digested by digestive enzymes that pour into the vesicle from a lysozome
(c) it fuses with the cell membrane of the phagocyte and kills it
(d) it dies because of the high temperature inside the phagocyte
(e) it secretes a white substance that we know as “pus”

16. Kuru is best diagnosed by a microscopic analysis of
(a) brain
(b) blood
(c) sputum
(d) lymph nodes
(e) feces

17. Which of these is the best treatment for a healthy carrier of Typhoid Fever in the present time
(a) laxatives
(b) diuretics
(c) surgery
(d) bed rest
(e) antibiotics

18. In the early 1900’s, the most effective way to identify dangerous carriers of Typhoid Fever was
(a) to require all food-handlers to have a certificate of health from a private or public physician
(b) routine testing of all private and public wells and water supplies
(c) following all reported Typhoid Fever cases until the feces were free of Typhoid bacilli
(d) epidemiological tracking of outbreaks to suspected sources
(e) Wassermann tests administered to all applicants for marriage licenses.

19. In the early 1900’s the new coverage in the major New York newspapers could best be described as
(a) prudish
(b) patriotic
(c) erudite
(d) sensationalist
(e) non-existent

20. The oldest forms of life on earth are
(a) plants
(b) animals
(c) fungi
(d) bacteria
(e) viruses

21. The disease that is almost entirely restricted to sheep is
(a) foot and mouth
(b) kuru
(c) scrapie
(d) bacillary angiomatosis
(e) toxoplasmosis

22. The idea that cleaning the streets and disposing of garbage was good for health was
(a) consistent with the germ theory of disease, but not the miasma theory
(b) consistent with the miasma theory of disease, but not the germ theory
(c) consistent with both the germ theory of disease and the miasma theory
(d) consistent with neither the germ theory of disease nor the miasma theory.
(e) consistent with religious doctrine, but not with any scientific theory.

23. Mary Mallon’s first court appearance established the new legal principle that
(a) the fifth amendment protection against self incrimination could be waived in cases involving infectious diseases
(b) individual rights take precedence over public health needs
(c) quarantine laws apply to women
(d) laws that apply to persons with disease can be extended to persons infected with pathogens
(e) quarantine could be enforced even against the will of the person being quarantined

24. Which of these is caused by a bacterium
(a) Herpes
(b) Influenza
(c) AIDS
(d) Syphilis
(e) The common cold

25. After the discovery (in the 1940’s) that penicillin is 100% effective in curing syphilis,
(a) the Tuskeegee Study became an issue of intense controversy that remained unresolved for ten years
(b) the Tuskeegee Study continued with no treatment offered and with treatment denied to those who sought it
(c) the Tuskeegee Study continued with no treatment offered, but with dwindling numbers as participants discovered penicillin and sought treatment on their own
(d) the Tuskeegee Study stopped and the participants were left to find treatment (or not) on their own
(e) the Tuskeegee Study stopped and all participants were treated with penicillin

26. The pilot study that eventually became the Tuskeegee Study was originally designed to
(a) introduce syphilis into the rural, African American population of the deep South
(b) guarantee that the rural African American population of the deep South would remain weaked by syphilis to a degree that it would be unlikely to rise from poverty
(c) optimize the dosage and treatment regimens for African Americans rather than merely using dosages developed from European studies
(d) see if the symptoms of syphilis differed depending on the race of the victim
(e) see if treatment of syphilis in the rural African American population of the deep South was possible or practical

27. The death of two adolescents (and severe disability of another) from Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in Britain within one year “sounded alarm bells” because
(a) they were all in the same hospital at the same time, raising questions about a possible new epidemic
(b) all three were from rich, powerfully connected families in Britain
(c) a direct link could be made in each case to the infected cow responsible
(d) Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease is extremely rare in young people
(e) their youth raised a “human interest” element in newspaper and television coverage

28. During the past century the amount of syphilis in the United States has
(a) increased dramatically (more than 20 fold since 1910)
(b) increased slightly (about 5-10% higher than in 1910)
(c) stayed remarkable constant despite efforts to eradicate or control it
(d) decreased slightly (about 5-10% lower than in 1910)
(e) decreased dramatically (more than 20 fold since 1910)

29. During the nineteenth century, there was considerable ill will between the Irish and the
(a) Italians
(b) Catholics
(c) Americans
(d) Africans
(e) English

30. Almost every human being
(a) carries no bacteria at all (i.e. is sterile from a bacteriological point of view)
(b) carries some bacteria, but only non-pathogenic ones
(c) carries some bacteria, but only pathogenic ones
(d) carries a mix of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria and would be sicker if they were all removed
(e) carries a mix of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria and would be even healthier if they were all removed

31. Most bacteria
(a) cause disease
(b) are too small to be seen without a microscope
(c) are multicellular organisms
(d) have RNA as their genetic material
(e) are viruses

32. Which of the following diseases is caused by a toxic protein (toxin) that is secreted by a pathogenic bacterium
(b) Tuberculosis
(c) Kuru
(d) Cholera
(e) Influenza

33. If your tuberculin skin test is positive, that means that
(a) you have been exposed to tuberculosis and infected by the germ
(b) you have had active tuberculosis at some time
(c) you have never had active tuberculosis
(d) you carry drug resistant tuberculosis germs
(e) you are not immune to tuberculosis (i.e. you should be re-vaccinated)

34. Hansen’s Disease is another name for
(a) Leprosy
(b) Variant Creutzfledt-Jakob Disease
(c) Syphilis
(d) Tuberculosis
(e) Cat-scratch fever

35. The influenza pandemic that swept the world in 1918 probably originated in
(a) Germany or France (on the battlefield of World War I)
(b) Hong Kong
(c) The United States
(d) Spain
(e) India

36. Bubonic plague is usually transmitted to humans by the bite of a
(a) rat
(b) cat
(c) dog
(d) flea
(e) tick

37. The island where Kuru was discovered was
(a) Great Britain
(b) Long Island
(c) New Guinea
(d) New Zealand
(e) Iceland

38. One of the body’s best natural defenses against infection by the bacterium that causes Cholera is
(a) its ability to retain water in times of need
(b) the acidity of the fluids in the stomach
(c) an unknown protein in saliva
(d) the blood-brain barrier
(e) its relative lack of calcium and magnesium

39. Tuberculosis is caused by
(a) a bacterium
(b) a virus
(c) a protozoan
(d) a fungus
(e) a yeast

40. Which of these is caused by a virus rather than a bacterium
(a) Cholera
(b) Tuberculosis
(c) Shingles
(d) Bubonic Plague
(e) Typhoid Fever

41. The initial understanding of the nature of Kuru was helped because of prior studies of
(a) Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME)
(b) Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
(c) Fulminating Tuberculosis
(d) the epidemic spread of smallpox and measles in the New World after 1492
(e) the epidemic spread of syphilis in the Europe after 1492

42. One of the earliest descriptions of Bubonic Plague in the Western World is thought to be
(a) the “Plague of Justinian” in Rome of the 6th century A.D.
(b) the plague of boils described in the Hebrew exodus from Pharonic Egypt
(c) the death of the Aztec armies during their conquest by Cortes
(d) the black death of the that brought Europe out of the dark ages
(e) the plague that led to the extinction of the Neanderthals and their replacement by modern man

43. Which of these is hardest for one human to catch from another human?
(a) Tuberculosis
(b) Influenza
(c) Pneumonic Plague
(d) Kuru

44. “Slow Virus” was a term that was once used (incorrectly) to describe the causative agent of
(a) Cholera
(b) Tuberculosis
(c) Influenza
(d) Scrapie
(e) Bubonic Plague

45. The definitive test for active tuberculosis is
(a) sputum sample stained with the Ziehl-Neelson stain
(b) antibody test for anti-bacterial antigens
(c) test for the p24 core antigen
(d) microscopic analysis of brain tissue
(e) the presence of “black and blue” swellings of the lymph nodes (“buboes”)

46. The disease most associated with cannibalism is
(a) Kuru
(b) AIDS
(c) ARC
(d) Syphilis
(e) Equine encephalitis

47. When a disease like measles is introduced to a population that has never known measles, the effects are
(a) much more lethal than in populations where measles is endemic
(b) somewhat more lethal than in populations where measles is endemic
(c) about as lethal as in populations where measles is endemic
(d) somewhat less lethal than in populations where measles is endemic
(e) much less lethal than in populations where measles is endemic

48. Which form of genetic material is used by humans, bacteria, and even some viruses?
(a) double stranded DNA
(b) single stranded DNA
(c) single stranded RNA
(d) double stranded RNA
(e) protein

49. A “prophylactic treatment” is most likely to describe a treatment designed to
(a) cure a disease
(b) prevent a disease
(c) slow the spread of a raging epidemic
(d) slow the progression of HIV disease
(e) provide a waterproof barrier between two bodies

50. “Mad Cow Disease” was initially thought to be no problem at all for humans because
(a) it was caused by a slow virus
(b) it was caused by a virino
(c) it was caused by a prion
(d) it ws caused by a bacterium
(e) a similar disease, scrapie, had not caused problems

51. The Wassermann Test can tell you whether
(a) you have been fully cured of syphilis or only rendered non-infectious
(b) the syphilis germs in your body are infectious or non-infectious
(c) you have any syphilis-specific complement in your blood
(d) you have any syphilis-specific antibodies in your blood
(e) you have any syphilis-specific germs in your blood (but not whether they are infectious or not)

52. The Europeans who came to the New World found no dinosaurs there. This is because
(a) there never were any dinosaurs in the New World; they were restricted to the Old
(b) they died out before humans evolved
(c) they were exterminated by early hunters soon after the first humans crossed into the New World via Alaska
(d) they were exterminated by Native Americans soon after the technological innovation known as the “Clovis Spear Point”
(e) they died out because of diseases brought by the “Columbian Exchange” before the Europeans ever saw them

53. The movement that developed in the 1920’s and 1930’s that attempted the elimination of syphilis and other STD’s through prevention, education, treatment and contract tracing was generally known as
(a) Temperance
(b) Social Hygiene
(c) Suffrage
(d) Medical Missionary
(e) Anticontagionism

54. The term venereal (as in “venereal disease”) comes from
(a) the Latin venerit (“it will come”)
(b) the belief that such diseases resulted from imbalances in venous blood (as opposed to arterial blood)
(c) the belief that venerable persons were more likely to develop such diseases
(d) the observation that the early symptoms were very superficial, like a veneer
(e) the name of Venus the Roman goddess of love

55. In the US, about 50% of the cases of syphilis today occur in 31 counties. Most of these counties are located
(a) in and around the port cities of the East, West, and Gulf coasts.
(b) in states with high populations of immigrants from Asia and Africa
(c) in and around the industrialized Northern and Mid-western cities
(d) in the rural South
(e) in California and the other states that border Mexico

56. The blood test that is designed to detect the presence of antibodies against HIV is
(b) PCR
(c) Reverse transcriptase
(d) Protease inhibition
(e) Integrase

57. Which of these is required to cut large HIV-encoded polypeptides into smaller, active proteins?
(a) Reverse transcriptase
(b) Protease
(c) gp120
(d) p24
(e) Integrase

58. The cell that secretes antibodies into the bloodstream is a
(a) T-helper cell
(b) T-killer cell
(c) B-cell
(d) Phagocyte
(e) Complement cell

59. The number of people worldwide who die of HIV/AIDS every year is currently about
(a) 3 billion
(b) 300 million
(c) 30 million
(d) 3 million
(e) 300,000

60. Many diseases are transmitted by a fecal-oral route. Which of the following is the most direct and graphic illustration of a fecal-oral route? (Which is most guaranteed to provide a fecal-oral route for transmission of disease?)
(a) anal intercourse
(b) anilingus (rimming)
(c) hand washing with shaped bar of soap
(d) brachioproctal manipulation (fisting)
(e) food preparation

61. A cell that is specifically designed to “eat” bacteria that might be present in the blood or tissues of a human would be known as a
(a) T-helper cell
(b) T-killer cell
(c) B-cell
(d) Phagocyte
(e) Complement cell

62. At the present time, how many states require reporting of the name of every person diagnosed with AIDS?
(a) 50
(b) 48
(c) 33
(d) 12
(e) 2

63. According to Randy Shilts’ book, the first westerner documented to have died of AIDS was
(a) Gaetan Dugas
(b) Francoise Barre
(c) Rock Hudson
(d) Enno Poersch’s lover “Nick”
(e) Grethe Rask

64. There are cells in your body that take up a whole bacterium or virus, break it into small pieces, attach those pieces to the “self” molecule (MHC), and put this combined “self”-small piece complex onto the surface of the cell. This process is called
(a) seroconversion
(b) T-cell maturation
(c) antigen presentation
(d) antibody binding
(e) complement fixation

65. The paper in the Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report of the CDC that is usually considered to be the first description of the AIDS epidemic in the US described five gay men in Los Angeles who were suffering from
(a) Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
(b) Kaposi’s sarcoma
(c) Toxoplasmosis
(d) Cryptosporidium
(e) Hepatitis B

66. T4-helper cells can stimulate the cell proliferation (multiplication) of all of the following except
(a) B cells
(b) T helper cells
(c) T killer cells
(d) Bacterial cells
(e) Macrophages

67. At the time that the AIDS epidemic was beginning in the US, the study of retroviruses was
(a) one of the most active areas of research in the US
(b) relatively unknown with very few practitioners
(c) an area of research that was proved to be mostly based on fraudulent data
(d) an area of research that was opposed by many religious groups
(e) an area of research that was forbidden by regulations enforced by the Reagan Administration

68. When one cell that produces an antibody that recognizes an invader begins to divide repeatedly, the result is a much larger number of cells that make exactly the right antibody and no increase in the number of cells that make “useless” antibodies. This increase in the number of the “right” cells is called
(a) clonal expansion
(b) macrophage degeneration
(c) antigen presentation
(d) lysozome fusion
(e) phagocytosis

69. HIV will successfully infect a cell if it has
(a) both CD4 and “self” (MHC)
(b) both CD4 and CCR5
(c) both CCR5 and CXCR4
(d) both CCR5 and “self” (MHC)
(e) both CD4 and gp120

70. The signal that causes a B cell to divide rapidly and secrete antibodies into the bloodstream (final maturation) is
(a) interaction of an antibody-antigen complex with complement
(b) contact with any cell that carries CD4
(c) contact with a T-helper cell that recognizes the same antigen as the B cell
(d) contact with an antigen that the B cell recognizes
(e) contact with a macrophage that has an antigen on it that the B cell can also recognize

71. The current AIDS pandemic probably with a transmission from animals to humans in
(a) Asia
(b) Africa
(c) Europe
(d) North America
(e) South America

72. The country with the highest percentage of its population infected by HIV is
(a) India
(b) Thailand
(c) South Africa
(d) The United States
(e) Egypt

73. When Mayor George Moscone was murdered, who succeeded him as Mayor of San Francisco?
(a) Selma Dritz
(b) Donna Mildvan
(c) Mary Guinan
(d) Dianne Feinstein
(e) Margaret Heckler

74. The shape of the HIV capsid is roughly that of a
(a) cube
(b) cylinder
(c) spiral
(d) cone
(e) football

75. Regular use of a latex condom during sexual intercourse appears to reduce the frequency of transmission of HIV
(a) to nearly zero
(b) to about 1 in 1,500,000
(c) to about 1 in 400,000
(d) by about 100 fold
(e) by about 3 fold

76. The asymptomatic stage between the initial symptoms of syphilis (e.g. chancre) and the late symptoms (madness, blindness, heart disease, etc.) is usually referred to as the
(a) carrier state
(b) non-infectious state
(c) latent stage
(d) terminal stage
(e) primary stage

77. What Western Hemisphere country was the first to have a high incidence of HIV/AIDS
(a) Cuba
(b) Mexico
(c) Dominican Republic
(d) Haiti
(e) Granada

78. The current HAART contains
(a) anti-CCR5 antibody and integrase inhibitors
(b) anti-gp120 antibody and CD4
(c) inhibitors of integrase, and protease
(d) inhibitors of protease and reverse transcriptase
(e) p24 antigen

79. Chickenpox is caused by the same agent as
(a) Kaposi’s Sarcoma
(b) Thrush
(c) Athlete’s foot
(d) Shingles
(e) Measles

80. Since the introduction of the test for p24 antigen in 1996, the risk of getting an HIV infection from a blood transfusion is estimated to be about
(a) 1 in 300
(b) 1 in 6,000
(c) 1 in 400 thousand
(d) 1 in 1.5 million
(e) 1 in a billion

81. The fraction of the US population that is currently infected with HIV is
(a) less than 1%
(b) between 1 and 5%
(c) between 10 and 15%
(d) between 30 and 40%
(e) greater than 90%

82. The European disease that did the most damage to the native populations in the New World in the 100 years after Columbus’ arrival was
(a) Tuberculosis
(b) Bubonic plague
(c) The common cold
(d) Syphilis
(e) Smallpox

83. Viral infections are almost impossible to cure because
(a) viruses are too small to be detected even with a standard microscope (and require an electron microscope to see them)
(b) circular DNA molecules are quite resistant to degradation
(c) the viral membrane is often studded with proteins that allow it to interact with proteins on human cells
(d) viruses have a nearly impenetrable protein shell that prevents antibiotics from entering the virus
(e) viruses are not affected by antibiotics that work very well against bacteria

84. The microscopist who discovered “Scrapie Associated Fibrils” (SAF) was
(a) Selma Dritz
(b) Patricia Merz
(c) Sandra Ford
(d) Donna Mildvan
(e) Francoise Barre

85. The greatest risk for an American outbreak of Mad Cow Disease is probably from
(a) cattle imported from Britain before 1990
(b) cattle originating in Britain and imported through a third country (especially Canada and Mexico) up to the present time
(c) a spontaneous occurrence of an American strain of BSE in beef cattle
(d) transmission of scrapie from sheep to beef to humans in the US
(e) transmission from imported beef products used in pet food to cats and then to humans

86. Which of these would most likely be called a venereal disease
(a) Influenza
(b) Tuberculosis
(c) Bubonic Plague
(d) Typhoid Fever

87. Every virus has a capsid which is a
(a) shell made of protein
(b) a specific protein on its surface that recognizes a structure on a target cell
(c) a specific protein on a target cell that matches a structure on the virus
(d) a nucleic acid (either RNA or DNA, depending on the virus)
(e) a specific antibody

88. Another term for HAART is
(a) single drug therapy
(b) double drug therapy
(c) triple drug therapy
(d) four drug therapy
(e) AZT

89. Cryptococcus, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasmosis, and “Mycobacterium avium complex” are opportunistic infections most typically seen during
(a) the early stage of HIV disease, before seroconversion
(b) the early state of HIV disease, just after seroconversion
(c) the stage between seroconversion and the beginning of the decline in CD4+ cells
(d) pre-AIDS (or ARC) where CD4+ cells are beginning to decline
(e) end stage HIV/AIDS where CD4+ cell counts are very low

90. Cats are a common carrier of the opportunistic infection
(a) Toxoplasmosis OR
(b) Bacciliary angiomatosis
(c) Cryptococcus
(d) Thrush
(e) Tuberculosis

91. At the present time, which of these has the lowest probability?
(a) that a nurse who jabs himself with an HIV-contaminated syringe needle will develop HIV/AIDS
(b) that an injection drug user who shares a needle with an HIV-infected person will contract HIV/AIDS
(c) that a patient undergoing heart surgery will die from the surgery
(d) that a patient undergoing heart surgery will contract HIV/AIDS from a blood transfusion
(e) that a person driving a car will die in an automobile accident

92. Which of these is another (older) name for HIV?
(a) KSV
(b) HPV
(c) HBV
(d) LAV
(e) AZT

93. One of the earliest drugs used to treat AIDS was
(a) KSV
(b) HPV
(c) HBV
(d) LAV
(e) AZT

94. The disease whose mode of transmission and progression through stages most resembles that of syphilis is
(a) Typhoid Fever
(b) Cholera
(c) Influenza
(d) Bubonic Plague

95. The death of Rock Hudson from AIDS is generally considered to have
(a) led to the abandonment of single drug therapy
(b) opened the public discussion of AIDS in the US
(c) led to a more careful screening of the blood supply in the US
(d) convinced Robert Gallo that his studies in retrovirology were important
(e) induced the Reagan Administration to reduce funding for AIDS research

96. Cytomegalovirus infections of AIDS patients are particularly debilitating and often result in
(a) blindness
(b) deafness
(c) loss of sense of smell
(d) loss of sense of touch
(e) loss of all pain nerve sensations

97. Which of these persons lives closest to the University of Michigan?
(a) Randy Shilts
(b) Larry Kramer
(c) Selma Dritz
(d) Sylvia Hacker
(e) Margaret Heckler

98. AIDS patients who develop Kaposi’s Sarcoma probably acquired the causative agent
(a) from cats
(b) from injection drug use
(c) from anal intercourse
(d) from pigeon droppings
(e) at the time of their birth

99. Which of these diseases killed more persons in the year 2000?
(a) Tuberculosis
(b) Typhoid Fever
(c) Syphilis
(d) Influenza

100. Which of these diseases holds the record for the largest number of deaths in a single year?
(a) Tuberculosis
(b) Typhoid Fever
(c) Syphilis
(d) Influenza

101. For which of these diseases is the number of infected persons greatest? (Note: infected includes those with symptoms and those without.)
(a) Tuberculosis
(b) Typhoid Fever
(c) Syphilis
(d) Influenza