2007 Exam 3

1. The standard (ELISA) test to determine if you are HIV positive tests whether
a)You have viral RNA in your blood
b)You have viral proteins in your blood
c)You have intact virus in your bloodd)You have raised an antibody response against HIV
e)You have fewer than normal numbers of T4 helper cells in your blood

2. Where did the first death from HIV/AIDS occur?
d)North America
e)South America

3. Currently available evidence suggests that people who lack a functional CCR5 protein on their cells are more likely to survive exposure to HIV and perhaps also more likely to survive exposure to
a)Salmonella typhi
b)Vibrio cholerae
c)Mycobacterium tuberculosis
d)Yersinia pestis
e)Bacillus anthracis

4. Sandra Ford, working at the CDC, became concerned that something unusual was happening because
a)She was the editor of MMWR
b)She was sending too many samples of Pentamidine for diseases that seemed to have no underlying cause
c)Her budget was inexplicably cut three times within one fiscal year
d)She was developing purplish lesions on her legs and abdomen
e)Her survey of gay men’s sexual habits in New York suggested that there was too much sex going on to be safe

5. Which of these is a principal symptom of the disease hemophilia?
a)A desire to drink blood
b)Formation of blood clots in response to bruising or trauma
c)Night sweats
d)Deficiency of certain kinds of lymphocytes (or a reduced ratio of white blood cells to red blood cells)
e)Inability of blood to clot

6. Which of these is the key to inducing a specific immune response
a)B cells send a signal that causes clonal expansion of nearby macrophages
b)B cells send a signal that causes clonal expansion of nearby T4 helper cells
c)T4 helper cells send a signal that causes clonal expansion of nearby B cells
d)T4 helper cells send a signal that causes clonal exansion of nearby macrophages
e)B cells send out a signal that causes clonal expansion of other nearby B cells

7. The reason that HIV is so effective in its pathology is because it kills
a)B cells
b)T4 helper cells
d)T8 killer cells
e)Red blood cells

8. During the early years of the AIDS epidemic in the United States, Diane Feinstein and Ed Koch were
a)Members of Congress
c)AIDS activists
d)Public Health workers
e)Mayors of large cities

9. The most sensitive test for knowing if you are infected with HIV is
a)ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)
b)Western Blot
c)Direct observation in the electron microscope
d)RT-PCR (Reverse transcriptase and Polymerase Chain Reaction)
e)CCR5 assay (Chemokine Receptor #5 assay)

10. The fact that the worldwide number of deaths from HIV/AIDS in 2006 was less than the number of new infections by HIV suggests that
a)The number of deaths from AIDS will decrease even if AIDS prevention campaigns fail
b)The number of deaths from AIDS will decrease but only if AIDS prevention campaigns succeed
c)The number of deaths from AIDS will increase unless AIDS prevention campaigns succeed
d)The number of deaths from AIDS will increase even if AIDS prevention campaigns succeed
e)The number of deaths from AIDS has leveled off even before a serious effort at prevention was attempted

11. The function of HIV’s protease is to
a)Make proteins
b)Degrade proteins
c)Cut polyproteins into smaller pieces
d)Fuse small proteins into larger polyproteins

12. The first Kaposi’s Sarcoma clinic in the US, which became the first center devoted to AIDS patients, opened in October 1981 in
a)Los Angeles
b)New York
d)San Francisco

13. The role of the dendritic cells is to
a)Signal B cells to divide
b)Signal B cells to make antibody
c)Carry antigens to the lymph nodes
d)Remove dead T cells from lymph vessels and lymph nodes
e)Remove antigens from antigen presenting cells

14. In Michigan, if you go to your doctor for a confidential HIV test and you test positive, the doctor is expected to report your name
a)To nobody
b)To the city health department but not the county health department
c)To the county health department but not the state health department
d)To the state health department but not the CDC
e)To the CDC

15. The current number of persons worldwide who are infected with HIV is in the
a)Hundreds of thousands
c)Tens of millions
d)Hundreds of millions

16. In order for HIV to productively infect a cell, the cell must have both CD4 and CCR5 on the surface of the cell.The role of CCR5 appears to be
a)To release a portion of gp41 from within gp120 so that the virus and the cell can be connected together
b)To cleave the inactive polyprotein gp160 into the active proteins gp41 and gp120
c)To cleave the polyprotein containing inactive forms of protease, reverse transcriptase, and integrase into smaller, active units
d)To splice the HIV RNA so that a single piece of RNA can code for multiple different proteins
e)To allow the cell membrane to bulge outward and eventually form an envelope around an HIV capsid as the virus buds out from the cell

17. Who was Selma Dritz?
a)A technician at the CDC
b)A doctor in New York City
c)A popular entertainer on the gay circuit in California
d)A patient who needed a blood transfusion
e)A public health worker in San Francisco

18. What determines which antigens I will be able to make antibodies against?
a)The antigens I have been exposed to in the past
b)The trillion or so antibody genes I got from my father and mother
c)A random rearrangement of a few genetic elements that ended by the time I was a year old
d)Whether or not those antigens (or something that looks very similar to them) actually exist in the natural world
e)The number of different kinds of macrophages in my lymphatic system

19. Francoise Barre was successful in detecting a retroviral activity from HIV because she decided
a)To look at patients with early symptoms (lymphadenopathy) rather than full-blown AIDS
b)To look only at patients from Africa
c)To use a more sensitive test for reverse transcriptase than Robert Gallo or Luc Montagnier
d)To screen only patients with KS, not those with PCP
e)To look directly, using the electron microscope, rather than rely on the reverse transcriptase assay

20. In Washtenaw county,anonymoustests for HIV are|
a)Legal but unavailable; you have to go to another county for the test
b)Illegal and unavailable
c)Illegal but widely available
d)Legal but expensive
e)Legal and inexpensive (or free)

21. After service in the Kuwait and Iraq in 1991, a number of men and women in the army began to complain of a variety of symptoms.Among the symptoms were chronic fatigue, skin rashes, sleep disorders, headaches, muscle pain, and recurrent diarrhea.  Most of the people who complained had two or three of the above, though not the same two or three in each case.  In such a situation, the best term to describe what these people were experiencing would be
a)Gulf War Disease
b)Gulf War Syndrome
c)Gulf War Immunodeficiency
d)Gulf War Virus

22. HIV, like other retroviruses, has a reverse transcriptase.Reverse transcriptase is
a)A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase
b)A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
c)An RNA-dependent DNA polymerase
d)An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

23. The title of Michael Gottlieb’s report that defines the beginning of the AIDS epidemic in the US was changed from its original title to Pneumocystispneumonia – Los Angeles in order to
a)Suggest that the disease was limited to the city of Los Angeles
b)Avoid further stigmatizing homosexual men
c)Avoid connecting PCP with other diseases in Los Angeles
d)Increase funding for researchers at UCLA rather than those at NIH or CDC
e)Downplay the fact that the pneumonia was caused by Pneumocystis carinii rather than other species of Pneumocystis.

24. Gaetan Dugas became known as “Patient Zero” because
a)He was at the center of a cluster of AIDS cases, many of whom had sex with him (or with someone who had sex with him)
b)He was ostracized by the gay community and was treated as a non-person while in the hospital and clinics
c)He called himself “the prettiest one” and considered himself better then “number one,” he was “number zero.”
d)He kept blaming his symptoms on cirrhosis of the liver (caused by his drinking) and his French accent made the “cirrho-” part of the word sound like zero, so he was mockingly called patient zero (cirrho-)
e)His job as an flight attendant for Air Canada meant that he paid zero for all his travel to gay events around the US and Canada

25. Where are you likely to find the highest concentration of T4 helper cells?
a)In the blood vessels
b)In the lymphatic vessels
c)In the heart
d)In the nucleus
e)In the lymph nodes

26. The CD4 molecule is important for the immune response because it recognizes and binds to
b)B cells
c)The “self” molecule
d)Cytotoxic T cells (T8, or T killer cells)
e)The CCR5 molecule

27. The primary interest of the Harvey Milk Club in San Francisco was
a)Parties (social)
c)Science (research)
e)Public Health