Primary Materials

Callaway County Court:

State of Missouri v. Celia, a Slave, Circuit Clerk File 4496, Callaway County Court, October Term, 1855

Kingdom of Callaway Historical Society:

Robert Newsom Estate Papers

Probate Records

Original Land Entries for Callaway County, Missouri. A transcription from the original as recorded by George W, Boardman, Register, Federal Land Office, Boonville, Missouri, August 29, 1886.

 State Historical Society of Missouri:

Newspaper Collection

Washington University in St. Louis Libraries, Special Collections:

Papers of Margaret Bush Wilson

Works of Art:

Pawley, Thomas, III. Song of the Middle River (play), 2003

Thurman, Solomon. Celia, 1995 (portrait) ( 

Thurman, Solomon. The Face of Celia: A Story of the Events and Research Surrounding my Search for The Face of Celia. (1995)

Secondary Materials

Baptist, Edward E. “’Cuffy,’ ‘Fancy Maids,’ and ‘One-Eyed Men’: Rape, Commodification, and the Domestic Slave Trade in the United States.” American Historical Review 106, no. 5 (December 2001): 1619-1650.

Bardaglio, Peter W. “Rape and the Law in the Old South: “Calculated to Excite Indignation in Every Heart.” Journal of Southern History 60, no. 4 (November 1994): 749-772.

Block, Sharon. “Lines of Color, Sex, and Service: Comparative Sexual Coercion in Early America.” In Sex, Love, Race: Crossing Boundaries in North American History, ed. Martha Hodes. New York: New York University Press, 1999.

Block, Sharon. Rape and Sexual Power in Early America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006

Burke, Diane Mutti. On Slavery’s Border: Missouri’s Small-Slaveholding Households, 1815-1865 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2010).

Camp, Stephanie. Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Clinton, Catherine. “Bloody Terrain: Freedwomen, Sexuality and Violence during Reconstruction.” Georgia Histodrical Quarterly 76 (Summer 1992), 313-32.

Clinton, Catherine. “Caught in the Web of the Big House: Women and Slavery.” In The Web of Southern Social Relations: Women, Family and Education. Ed. Walter J. Fraser, Jr., R. Frank Saunders, Jr., and Jon L. Wakelyn. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1985, 19-34.

Clinton, Catherine. “Reconstructing Freedwomen.” In Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War. Ed. Catherine Clinton and Nina Silber. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, 306-319.

Davis, Adrienne J. “Don’t Let Nobody Bother Yo’ Principle: The Sexual Economy of American Slavery,” in Sharon Harley, ed., Sister Circle: Black Women and Work (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2002.)

Davis, Angela Y. “Reflections on the Black Woman’s Role in the Community of Slaves.” The Black Scholar 3 (December 1971), 3-15.

Edwards, Laura. “Sexual Violence, Gender, Reconstruction, and the Extension of Patriarchy in Granville County, North Carolina.” North Carolina Historical Review 48 (1991), 237-60.

Foster, Thomas A. “The Sexual Abuse of Black Men under American Slavery.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 20, no. 3 (September 2011), 445-464.

Frazier, Harriet C. Slavery and Crime in Missouri, 1773-1865 (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, 2001.)

Glymph, Thavolia. Out of the House of Bondage: The Transformation of the Plantation Household. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Gordon-Reed, Annette. “Celia’s Case (1857)” in Race on Trial: Law and Justice in American History (Annette Gordon-Reed ed., Oxford University Press, 2002).

Greene, Lorenzo, and Gary R. Kremer and Antonio F. Holland. Missouri’s Black Heritage (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1993 (1980)).

Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd. “‘The Mind That Burns in Each Body’: Women, Rape, and Racial Violence.” In Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality. Ed. Ann Snitow, Christine Stansell, and Sharon Thompson. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983, 328-49.

Halpern, James A. “Archaeological and historical investigations of the Robert Newsom Farmstead (23CY497), Callaway County, Missouri.” M.S. thesis, Missouri State University, 2015.

Harrison, Suzan. “Mastering Narratives/Subverting Masters: Rhetorics of Race in the Confessions of Nat Turner, Dessa Rose and Celia, A Slave.” Southern Quarterly 35, no. 3 (Spring 1997): 13-16.

Hartman, Saidiya. “Seduction and the Ruses of Power.” Callaloo 19, no. 2 (Spring 1996): 537-560.

Hartman, Saidiya V. Scenes of Subjection: Terror, Slavery, and Self-Making in Nineteenth-Century America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.)

Higginbotham, A. Leon, Jr. Shades of Freedom: Racial Politics and Presumptions of the American Legal Process (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.)

Keizer, Arlene. “‘That Cage of Obscene Birds’: Slavery and the Deployment of Sexuality.” Literature on the Move: Comparing Diasporic Ethnicities in Europe and the Americas. Ed. Dominique Marçais et al. Heidelberg: Universitaetsverlag C. Winter, 2002: 285-92.

King, Wilma. “’Mad’ Enough to Kill: Enslaved Women, Murder, and Southern Courts.” Journal of African American History 92, no. 1 (Winter 2007): 37-56.

King, Wilma. “’Prematurely Knowing of Evil Things’: The Sexual Abuse of African American Girls and Young Women in Slavery and Freedom,” journal of African American History Vol. 99, no. 3 (Summer 2014), pp. 173-96.

Lubet, Steven, Fugitive Justice: Runaways, Rescuers, and Slavery on Trial (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap/Harvard University Press, 2010).

McLaurin, Melton A. Celia, a Slave: A True Story (New York: HarperCollins, 1999).

McNair, Glenn. “Slave Women, Capital Crime, and Criminal Justice in Georgia.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 93, no. 2 (Summer 2009): 135-158.

Miles, Tiya. Ties That Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2005.)

Newton, Melanie J. “The King v. Robert James, a Slave, for Rape: Inequality, Gender, and British Slave Amelioration, 1823-1834.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 47, no. 3 (July 2005): 583-610.

Rosen, Hannah. Terror in the Heart of Freedom: Citizenship, Sexual Violence, and the Meaning of Race in the Postemancipation South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.)

Sommerville, Diane Miller. “The Rape Myth in the Old South Reconsidered.” Journal of Southern History 61, no. 3 (August 1995): 481-518.

Sommerville, Diane Miller. Rape and Race in the Nineteenth Century South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Stone, Andrea. “Interracial Sexual Abuse and Legal Subjectivity in Antebellum Law and Literature.” American Literature 81, no. 1 (March 20090: 65-92.

Stone, Andrea. “Introduction.” “‘Chaotic Freedom” in Civil War Louisianna” by Bruce Laurie. The Massachusetts Review Working Title 2.1. (November 29, 2016).

Texler, Harrison Anthony, Slavery in Missouri, 1804-1865 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1914.)

Williamson, Hugh P. “The State Against Celia, a Slave.” The Midwest Journal (Spring-Fall, 1956), 408-20