“Rome Wasn’t Built in a Day Either”


“Rome Wasn’t Built in a Day Either” (June 18, 1947)
by Harold I “Tom” Carlisle (1904-1993)
14 x 19 in., ink on board
Coppola Collection

Tom Carlisle grew up in Jefferson, IA, and graduated from the University of Iowa. He joined the Des Moines Register as an assistant to J.N. “Ding” Darling, the newspaper’s long-time editorial cartoonist.  After Darling’s retirement in 1949, Carlisle served as the Register’s primary cartoonist until his retirement in 1953.

Several attempts were made to codify international law after WWI. The work that led to the International Law Commission was begun in the Resolution of the Assembly of the League of Nations in 1924, which established the Committee of Experts for the Progressive Codification of International Law, consisting of 17 members, for the purpose of making recommendations as to which issues required to be addressed in international law and the steps desirable to that end.

The name “United Nations,” coined by FDR, was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of January 1, 1942, months after the US entry into WWII, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.

In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on June 26, 1945, by the representatives of the 50 countries, and the final ratification was on October 24.

On December 11, 1946, The General Assembly passed Resolution 94, which called to establish a committee of legal experts to make recommendations to the UN Secretary-General on the ways the General Assembly could encourage the progressive development of international law and its codification. The committee of experts consisted of 17 members and convened from May 12 to June 17, 1947. It recommended to establish a permanent UN commission to promote these objectives.

On November 21, 1947, the UN General Assembly passed Resolution 174, which provided for the creation of an “International Law Commission” in order to fulfill the obligations of the Charter.

“Bad Weather Forecast from Benito’s Gout”


“Bad Weather Forecast from Benito’s Gout” (May 16, 1943)
by Hugh McMillen Hutton (1897-1976)
20 x 22 in., ink and crayon on heavy board
Coppola Collection

Hugh M. Hutton (1897-1976) was an American editorial cartoonist who worked at the Philadelphia Inquirer for over 30 years.

Hugh Hutton grew up with an artistic mother. After attending the University of Minnesota for two years, Hutton enlisted in the armed forces and served in World War I. Hutton pursued coursework in art through correspondence school, the Minneapolis School of Art and the Art Students League.

He worked at the New York World from 1930 to 1932 and with the United Features Syndicate in 1932 and 1933, drawing illustrations and comic strips. Hutton relocated to Philadelphia and worked as the cartoonist at the Public Ledger in 1933 and 1934. He became the Philadelphia Inquirer’s editorial cartoonist in April 1934, where he stayed throughout his career, retiring in 1969.

Mussolini, the father of fascism, partnered with Hitler in 1936.

Mussolini’s dreams of waging a short war almost independently from Hitler faded away during 1941 in the snows of Greece. His main concern became how to secure an important place for Italy in a German-dominated Europe. Hitler blamed his need to go rescue the Italians on the Greek front for delaying his invasion of Russia.

As the war turned against Germany, Mussolini wanted to find a political solution to the conflict by negotiating a separate peace agreement with Moscow.

May 10, 1943: On the day that the Enabling Act of 1933 was set to expire by its terms, Adolf Hitler signed an order extending his dictatorship indefinitely. Published in the Reich Law Gazette, the decree stated “The Reich government will continue to exercise the powers bestowed on it by virtue of the law of March 24, 1933. I reserve for myself the obtaining of a confirmation of these powers of the Reich government by the Greater German Reichstag.”

Following the defeat of the Axis Powers in North Africa in May 1943, there was disagreement between the Allies as to what the next step should be. The British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, in particular wanted to invade Italy, which in November 1942 he called “the soft underbelly of the axis.” Popular support in Italy for the war was declining, and he believed an invasion would remove Italy, and thus the influence of Axis forces in the Mediterranean Sea, opening it to Allied traffic.

When it became clear that no cross-channel invasion of occupied France could be undertaken in 1943, the US agreed to invade Sicily, with no commitment made to any follow-up operations. However, both Churchill and FDR accepted the necessity of Allied armies continuing to engage the Axis in the period after a successful campaign in Sicily and before the start of one in northwest Europe.

With an Allied invasion of Italy imminent, Pope Pius XII sent an appeal to FDR, asking that American bombers spare the destruction of Rome, noting that its “many treasured shrines of religion and art” were “the precious heritage not of one people but of all human and Christian civilization”

By mid-June, 1943, the war was all but lost for the Italians. The Italian population was alienated, and the Grand Council and the king were pressing Mussolini to negotiate a way out of the war.

In late June, Mussolini was continuing his psychological contest with Hitler. On July 1, 1943, against the Hitler’s wishes, Mussolini met with the Romanian deputy premier, Antonescu, with whom he agreed to promote the long-debated inter-Axis conference (and a Nazi-Soviet settlement, which was of no interest to Hitler).

Allied forces landed in Sicily starting on July 10, 1943 and moved northward. Support for the war and for Mussolini had dropped substantially, and he was ousted on July 25, 1943. On September 3, an armistice was reached between the new government of Italy and the Allies. Hitler was already in the north of Italy, and the Italian peninsula became a contested war zone.

On October 13, 1943, one month after Italy surrendered to the Allies, it declared war on its one-time Axis partner, Nazi Germany.

“Cupid Claims Sabotage!”


“Cupid Claims Sabotage!” (February 7, 1941)
by Marshall Alston (MA) Dunning (1894-1949)
12 x 13 in., ink on board
Coppola Collection

MA (Marshall Alston) Dunning enlisted in 1918, serving first with the 158th Depot, then with the Medical Department at Debarkation Hospital no. 52 at Richmond College (now University of Richmond) in Richmond, Virginia. Dunning’s cartoons began appearing in the hospital newspaper Head’s Up January 4, 1919 and ran until the paper ended on April 7, 1919.

After being honorably discharged from the army in 1919, Dunning returned to Cleveland, graduating from the Cleveland School of Art (now Cleveland Institute of Art) in 1921. Over the next 28 years, his career spanned the continent, as he worked for the Akron Times and Cleveland Press in Ohio, and the Miami News and Jacksonville Journal in Florida. Dunning travelled west to California, where he worked for the San Diego Tribune, as well as for the Walt Disney Company and Columbia Pictures as an animator. As an animator, Dunning contributed to movie shorts for Walt Disney Company, including The Three Little Pigs (1933) and the Krazy Kat shorts at Columbia Pictures.

In 1938, Dunning joined the Austin American-Statesman staff, focusing on international political issues as well as local Texas issues for his editorial cartoons. He returned to Florida in 1943, and died of a heart attack in Jacksonville in June 1949.

“Moving Day in Washington”


“Moving Day in Washington” (January 2, 1935)
by John Tinney McCutcheon (1870-1949)
14 x 19 in., ink on drawing board
Coppola Collection

On the Purdue campus, where he was a student, McCutcheon (class of 1889) is memorialized in a coeducational dormitory, John T. McCutcheon Hall. The lobby displays an original of one of his drawings, a nearly life-size drawing of a young man.

After college, McCutcheon moved to Chicago, Illinois, where he worked at the Chicago Morning News (later: Chicago Record) and then at the Chicago Tribune from 1903 until his retirement in 1946. McCutcheon received the Pulitzer Prize for Cartoons in 1932.

Democrats’ large congressional majorities grew after the 1934 mid-term elections in a strong endorsement for President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “New Deal.”

Seated during the third and fourth years of FDR’s first term, the 74th Congress (January 3, 1935 – January 3, 1937) addressed the needs for a social safety net as the Great Depression persisted. The Supreme Court found many of FDR’s programs unconstitutional, but congressional Democrats continued passing reform legislation. Congress encouraged collective bargaining, created Social Security, regulated public utilities, and provided for rural electrification. Congress also passed the Neutrality Act, which prohibited arms exportation during wartime, in response to charges that weapons manufacturers were responsible for World War I.

“Wings Over Europe”


“Wings Over Europe” (March 1, 1933)
by Hugh McMillen Hutton (1897-1976)
14 x 16 in., ink and crayon on heavy board
Coppola Collection

Hugh M. Hutton (1897-1976) was an American editorial cartoonist who worked at the Philadelphia Inquirer for over 30 years.

Hugh Hutton grew up with an artistic mother. After attending the University of Minnesota for two years, Hutton enlisted in the armed forces and served in World War I. Hutton pursued coursework in art through correspondence school, the Minneapolis School of Art and the Art Students League.

He worked at the New York World from 1930 to 1932 and with the United Features Syndicate in 1932 and 1933, drawing illustrations and comic strips. Hutton relocated to Philadelphia and worked as the cartoonist at the Public Ledger in 1933 and 1934. He became the Philadelphia Inquirer’s editorial cartoonist in April 1934, where he stayed throughout his career, retiring in 1969.

Early 1933 is filled with pivotal moments.

On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler begins his first government service as the Germany’s Reichskanzier (chancellor), appointed by President Hindenburg.

Many expect him to start fixing Germany’s problems.

On February 1, the new Chancellor declared “More than fourteen years have passed since the unhappy day when the German people, blinded by promises from foes at home and abroad, lost touch with honor and freedom, thereby losing all… Communism with its method of madness is making a powerful and insidious attack upon our dismayed and shattered nation.”

On February 27-28, the fire in the Reichstag was a first step towards Hitler’s dictatorship.

On 27 February 1933, guards noticed the flames blazing through the roof. They overpowered the suspected arsonist, a Dutch communist named Marinus van der Lubbe. He was executed after a show trial in 1934. Evidence of any accomplices was never found.

The Nazi leadership was quick to arrive at the scene. An eyewitness said that upon seeing the fire, Goering called out: ‘This is the beginning of the Communist revolt, they will start their attack now! Not a moment must be lost!’

Before he could go on, Hitler shouted: “There will be no mercy now. Anyone who stands in our way will be cut down.”

The next morning, President Von Hindenburg promulgated the Reichstag Fire Decree. It formed the basis for the dictatorship. The civil rights of the German people were curtailed. Freedom of expression was no longer a matter of course and the police could arbitrarily search houses and arrest people. The political opponents of the Nazis were essentially outlawed.

On March 4, 1933:

Hitler associates Marxism with the mass starvation in the Ukraine, and he associates Marxism with both communists and Germany’s Social Democrats, blurring over the differences between these two groups, while communists were avoiding an alliance with the Social Democrats and calling them frauds and “social fascists.”

FDR took office in the midst of the Great Depression.

Many expect him to start fixing America’s problems.

The next day, March 5, 1933:

FDR closes the banks for a few days.

Hitler’s party wins 43.9 percent rather than the more than 50 percent that Hitler was expecting. He is forced to maintain a coalition with the German National People’s Party. The Nazis begin a boycott of Jewish businesses throughout Germany.

On March 20, 1933, Heinrich Himmler, Hitler’s SS paramilitary leader, opens the first Nazi concentration camp, at Dachau.

And on March 23, Chancellor Hitler moves for a vote in the Reichstag that allows him to make laws without consulting the Reichstag – the Enabling Act. He describes the German people as having been a victim of fourteen years of treason while under the Social Democrats and his party, the National Socialists as also having been victimized. He claims that the Social Democrats allowed Germany to be dictated to by foreign powers. He ends his speech saying that “the first and foremost task of the Government to bring about inner consensus with his aims… The rights of the Churches will not be curtailed and their position vis-à-vis the State will not be altered.” The previous jailing of Communist delegates allows Hitler the two-thirds majority he needs for passage, and the President signs it into law.

“Do Not Disturb” (Part 3)


“Do Not Disturb” (“Puck,” May 10, 1892) Part 3 of 3
by Louis Dalrymple (1866-1905)
9 x 12 in., ink on board
Coppola Collection

Dalrymple was known for his caricatures in publications such as Puck, Judge, and the New York Daily Graphic. Born in Cambridge, Illinois, he studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and the Art Students League of New York, and in 1885 became the chief cartoonist of the Daily Graphic. He died in 1905 in a New York sanitarium.

The Dalrymple story is continued from Part 2 of this 3-part cartoon.

December 29, 1905 (”New York Tribune”)

Louis Dalrymple, the cartoonist, died on Wednesday evening from acute paresis in the Long Island Home, at Amityville. For the last three weeks he had been inert and totally blind. He was taken to the Home two months ago, when he first showed signs of insanity, and since then he has rapidly grown worse. In 1897 he was divorced from Miss Lelia Carpenter, of Brooklyn, and this, his friends day, weighed heavily on his mind. The court’s decision forced him to pay his divorced wife alimony, but after his second marriage, to Miss Ann Good, of Baltimore, he refused any longer to do so, and left the State to escape contempt proceedings. Last summer he came back to New-York and his mind broke down soon after.

Mr. Dalrymple was born in Cambridge, Ill., in 1865. His early days were passed on a farm, but he soon showed talent for drawing, and obtained a place on a country newspaper. He then drifted to Philadelphia. “Judge” soon brought him to New-York as a member of its staff. In 1886 he began to contribute to “Puck.” His restless disposition, however, never allowed him to stay long on any one paper, and he left New-York and held positions on papers in Chicago and Pittsburg. He will be buried in Baltimore.

“Do Not Disturb” (Part 2)


“Do Not Disturb” (“Puck,” May 10, 1892) Part 2 of 3
by Louis Dalrymple (1866-1905)
9 x 12 in., ink on board
Coppola Collection

Dalrymple was known for his caricatures in publications such as Puck, Judge, and the New York Daily Graphic. Born in Cambridge, Illinois, he studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and the Art Students League of New York, and in 1885 became the chief cartoonist of the Daily Graphic. He died in 1905 in a New York sanitarium.

The Dalrymple story is continued from Part 1 of this 3-part cartoon.

Seven years later Dalrymple met Miss Mary Ann Good, an exceedingly attractive young woman, belonging to a good Baltimore family, who had come to New York on a visit. He eloped with her to Jersey, and they were married there.

But Dalrymple was compelled to go on paying his former wife $75 a month as long as he was within the jurisdiction of the State Courts. He finally decided to leave New York.

Mr. and Mrs. Dalrymple moved to Greenwich, Conn., where he contributed to Judge and other comic publications, sending his copy in by mail. He used to slip into New York on Sunday, when process-servers were powerless and Sheriff’s officers could not nab him.

These Sunday visits only added to his desire to return to this city. He resolved to put a good stretch of continent between him and the temptation. In turn he was employed in the staff of the Philadelphia Press, the Baltimore News, the Pittsburg Dispatch, and the Chicago Tribune. But a demon of unrest kept driving him on  – he couldn’t get settled and be satisfied anywhere. It was a wander-lust which fed on his brain.

A few weeks ago the Dalrymples came back to town and took lodgings in Twenty-ninth street.

“Not even the fear of Ludlow Street Jail can keep me away,” the big artist told his friends. “Good old Broadway kept calling me, and I had to come.”

The friends noticed a change in him. Dalrymple, once one of the handsomest men in New York, was thin to emaciation. He was painfully nervous. He wandered in his speech.

Those things kept gnawing worse. He imagined that Tammany workers had drugged him on the night before election, and he threatened to kill Mayor McClellan. He was found sketching himself while looking in a mirror in the lobby of the Fifth Avenue Hotel. His antics necessitated his forcible removal from the Waldorf-Astoria. Later he became violent.

The physicians hold out little hope of recovery for the talented cartoonist, who in his day had made millions laugh.

The Dalrymple story concludes in Part 3 of this 3-part cartoon.

“Do Not Disturb”


“Do Not Disturb” (“Puck,” May 10, 1892) Part 1 of 3
by Louis Dalrymple (1866-1905)
9 x 12 in., ink on board
Coppola Collection

Dalrymple was known for his caricatures in publications such as Puck, Judge, and the New York Daily Graphic. Born in Cambridge, Illinois, he studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and the Art Students League of New York, and in 1885 became the chief cartoonist of the Daily Graphic. He died in 1905 in a New York sanitarium.

November 25, 1905 (“The Evening World”)

Cartoonist Dalrymple Goes Insane.
Exiled from New York by Alimony Tangle, His Health Breaks Down.

Louis Dalrymple, one of the most famous cartoonists in America, was taken to-day from his lodgings, No. 138 East Twenty-ninth street, to a sanitarium on Long Island. He is insane, probably hopelessly.

For weeks the artist’s condition had been a source of grief to his friends. Early this week he became violent. Yesterday afternoon he was found in a frenzy, chasing children about the streets of the neighborhood.

Those who knew Louis Dalrymple’s story are convinced that marital trouble’s affected his mind. Alimony demands were made on his income through a divorce suit and he brooded over an enforced exile from New York and an ever-growing desire to return here.

About fifteen years ago Dalrymple, then forging to the front as a cartoonist for Puck, married Miss Letia Carpenter, a pretty brunette of Brooklyn. Their life together was not happy. The wife obtained a divorce on statutory grounds. By the terms of the decree she was awarded their handsome home on Madison street, Brooklyn, where she still lives.

The court denied the husband the right to marry again in this state, and ordered him to pay his wife $75 a month in weekly installments

Note: $75 1890s dollars is $2240 in 2019 dollars.

The Dalrymple story continues in Part 2 of this 3-part cartoon.

“The Hour is Here!”


“The Hour is Here!” (January 24, 1945) 11/20
by Milton Rawson Halladay (1874-1961)
14.5 x 16 in., ink on board
Coppola Collection

Halladay was a native of Vermont and a noted political cartoonist for the Providence Journal (Rhode Island) for nearly fifty years (1900-1947). His cartoons were published in countless other newspapers and magazines. He has been called “one of the deans of American political cartooning.” His cartoon commemorating the death of Thomas A. Edison was a runner-up for the Pulitzer Prize.

By early 1945, the Red Army advances on the Eastern Front had driven the Germans out of eastern Poland as far as the Vistula River. The Red Army launched the Vistula-Oder Offensive on January 12, 1945, inflicted a huge defeat on the defending German forces, and advanced rapidly into western Poland and eastern Germany.

Certain cities sitting on the path of the Soviet advance were declared by Hitler to be Festungen (strongholds), where the garrisons were ordered to mount last-ditch stands. Posen, which had been taken right at the start of the war, was declared a Festung. The city was defended by 40,000 German troops.

The Battle of Posen was a massive assault by the Soviet Union’s Red Army that had as its objective the elimination of the Nazi German garrison in the stronghold city of Posen, in occupied Poland.

On January 21, 1945 the Soviets forced a crossing of the Warta River north of the city, and by January 24, these positions had been abandoned in favor of better bridgeheads south of the city. Meanwhile, Red Army tank units had swept north and south of the city, capturing hundreds of German aircraft in the process.

The defeat of the German garrison required almost an entire month of painstaking reduction of fortified positions, intense urban combat, and a final assault on the city’s citadel by the Red Army, complete with medieval touches.

“Lights Out”


“Lights Out” (February 26, 1945) 11/18
by Milton Rawson Halladay (1874-1961)
14.5 x 15 in., ink on board
Coppola Collection

Halladay was a native of Vermont and a noted political cartoonist for the Providence Journal (Rhode Island) for nearly fifty years (1900-1947). His cartoons were published in countless other newspapers and magazines. He has been called “one of the deans of American political cartooning.” His cartoon commemorating the death of Thomas A. Edison was a runner-up for the Pulitzer Prize.

The War Manpower Commission (WMC), in Washington, instituted a midnight curfew on all entertainment venues around the United States on February 26, 1945.

The main purpose of the curfew was to conserve coal for power, and to help alleviate the manpower shortage and the burdens on transportation.

All public and private establishments were affected: night clubs, sports arenas, theaters, dance halls, roadhouses, saloons, bars, shooting galleries, bowling and billiards, amusement parks, carnivals, circuses, gambling establishments, coin-operated amusements (juke boxes, pinball), skating rinks. All-night restaurants were excluded.